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NEWS 2003 [ONLINE VERSION]

Contents:


 

Editorial

Peter E. Allmayer-Beck

The International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes is looking back on 52 eventful years. From my personal perspective, the last three years have been particularly exciting ones: we were called upon to demonstrate that the Society is coping well with the profound changes connected with the withdrawal of Rudolf Schmidt, the Society's long time president, from the Active Board; also, that the newly elected Board, building upon previous achievements, was able to add new dimensions to the Society's activities.

I believe that, overall, we have been successful, but not without minor problems to be overcome. "Globe Studies", the English language version of our scholarly journal, went into publication and "Informationen", a collection of news items, developed into "NEWS", a livelier and informative bulletin. In June 2002, over 200 Coronelli Society members and guests attended a festive gathering in the Austrian National Library's state hall, listening to addresses by two invited guest speakers. The event closed with an evening reception in honour of the 50th anniversary of the Society's foundation. Half a year later, the 10th International Symposium on Globe Studies took place in Nuremberg, Germany, where more than 20 scholarly papers were presented. Coronelli Society membership is growing slowly but steadily, having reached 300. We hope that our symposia and publications will continue to stimulate interest in globe studies and/or globe collecting in growing numbers of people.

Regrettably, the current issue of NEWS is appearing late. Funding by public institutions is not easy to obtain these days and we have, so far, not received the private support required for the timely realisation of our ambitious publishing programme. In view of this, the Coronelli Society Board decided to ensure on time publication of our scholarly journal "Der Globusfreund / Globe Studies" through financing from regular funds, and to make the production of "NEWS" contingent on the availability of special funds.

In this connection, I would like to take the opportunity of requesting all our members, and especially those on our Extended Board, to join in our efforts to procure financial support from new sources. Up to the present, special funds have exclusively originated in Austria; the international character of our Society would, however, seem to warrant additional financing apart from membership fees also coming from other countries, too. I would like to draw attention to our statutes which state that the Coronelli Society's objectives may be promoted by taking up supporting membership and/or by donations.

I would also kindly ask all members to request libraries with which they are in contact to buy our scholarly journal "Der Globusfreund / Globe Studies", or to order missing back issues. With the exception of nos. 1 (1952) to 9 (1960) we have spare copies on stock that may be ordered to complete holdings. For a limited period, we offer a special discount of 30% on prices valid up to now (plus charges for packaging and postage) for orders of at least three issues; or a special discount of 50% for orders of at least six issues.

On the contents of this issue: Walter Wiesinger gives his usual, detailed report about the Society's annual general assembly, highlighted this time by the formal release of the outgoing Board after their three year term of office, and by the election of a new Board and new Auditors for the coming three years. On this occasion, I should like to thank the outgoing Board members and Auditors sincerely for their commitment. Andreas Riedl's column "Globe hunt on the Internet" will be concerned with modern globes this time. As regards "collecting", Ronald Grim, map curator and history of cartography expert, will inform readers about the globe collection of the Geography and Map Division of the US Library of Congress. The article on globe conservation, too, comes from the USA. Although globe making started rather late in United States compared with Europe, a wealth of interesting globes have been preserved, which sometimes did not receive all the attention and care due to them. Coronelli Society member Thomas McClintock lends his great experience and skills to the conservation of those historical objects for the benefit of posterity. The regrettably late production of NEWS has had a positive side effect, too. Because of the longer period of information gathering, the "Around the globe" section contains a larger than usual number of interesting news items. Heide Wohlschläger, always reliable, summarises the results of the most important international auctions where globes were on offer in 2002. Many thanks to all the authors and everyone involved in the production of this issue of our information bulletin!

Our Society's membership fee has remained unchanged at its moderate level since 1999, in spite of considerably expanded publishing activities, i.e. the production of English language version of "Der Globusfreund" and of "NEWS". Since we were aware from the outset that an increase in membership fees commensurate with our greater publishing expenditures would not be feasible, we had planned to cover our publishing costs with subsidies, grants and donations. In June 2003, however, postage fees were raised considerably again, thereby once more increasing distribution costs drastically. The Coronelli Society Board was therefore obliged to react to this unpleasant situation by suggesting an increase in our membership fee to EUR 30 per year. (If membership fees are paid for three years in advance, the total sum due is reduced to EUR 80). This motion was subsequently passed by the General Assembly. I sincerely hope that our members will accept this necessary decision. Another change concerns our communication method: in order to save postage, some communications (such as invitations to the General Assembly), which used to be distributed by ordinary mail, will in future be sent via e mail wherever possible. All members equipped with e-mail facilities are therefore kindly requested to inform us (vincenzo@coronelli.org) about the respective e-mail address to be used - and to update this information whenever necessary.

Because of the delayed publication of NEWS 2003 it seemed preferable to postpone publication of the 2004 issue to a date towards the end of this year. This will, however, be preceded by the publication of no. 51/52 of "Der Globusfreund / Globe Studies", again edited by Johannes Dörflinger. This double issue will, as usual, contain articles based on some of the papers presented at the 10th International Symposium held in Nuremberg, in 2002. The remaining papers delivered at the Nuremberg Symposium will be published in no. 53/54 of "Der Globusfreund / Globe Studies", planned to appear in 2005/2006.

To conclude this editorial, I take pleasure in informing our members about two recent joyful events: Our Honorary President, Rudolf Schmidt, celebrated his 80th birthday on 23 January 2004. The members the International Coronelli Society Board extend their sincere congratulations, wishing Rudolf Schmidt continuing good health and many more active years! On suggestion by the Coronelli Society Board, the General Assembly decided to confer Honorary Membership on Dr. Ludvik Mucha, in recognition of his long term membership and his support for globe studies. Congratulations!


On behalf of The International Coronelli Society, Peter E. Allmayer-Beck congratulates Rudolf Schmidt on his 80th birhday.


 

Report on the 2003 General Assembly

Walter Wiesinger

The General Assembly took place on 3rd December 2003 at the seat of the International Coronelli Society, the Austrian National Library in Vienna.

The President summarised events and activities during 2003. He was pleased to report that membership had risen. Public relations and publicity efforts had been successful; the Coronelli Society had been mentioned in a number of specialised journals. The president particularly stressed the great efforts needed to procure additional financial support. Special funds were needed to ensure the timely publication and high quality of "Der Globusfreund / Globe Studies" and of "News". The president was confident that the necessary sources of finance would be secured for the forthcoming issues of the Society's publications.

The President noted that expenditures in 2002 had exceeded those of the 2001, due, above all, to events celebrating the Society's 50th anniversary.

Since running costs, particular postage fees, had risen sharply, an increase in the membership fee, which had remained stable for many years, was considered. After lengthy deliberations on this point it was decided that the annual membership fee should be raised to EUR 30. In the case of advance payment for three years, the amount due would be reduced to EUR 80.

The auditors, having found the Society's books to be in order, approved of its financial management in 2002 and moved to release the Board. This motion was unanimously approved by the General Assembly.

As the Board's three year term of office ended in 2003, the General Assembly was called upon to elect a new board. All previous Board members were re elected unanimously. The two auditors were also re elected unanimously.

By unanimous decision the General Assembly conferred Honorary Membership on Dr. Ludvik Mucha (Prague) in recognition of his contributions to globe studies; he is therefore no longer represented on the Extended Board.

Having introduced new Coronelli Society members participating in this gathering for the first time, the President formally declared the 2003 General Assembly closed.


 

Globe Hunt on the Internet

Andreas Riedl

In News 2002, collectors and globe connoisseurs were informed about interesting globe collections represented on the world wide web; in this issue, readers will find some hints on how to trace individual modern globes on the Internet.

Initial rapid access to modern globes is offered by search engines; among those, Google seems to be the most efficient one (www.google.com). If one enters the search term "globes", one gets about 850,000 links. Most of them, unfortunately, do not refer to globes in the sense of terrestrial and celestial globes, but rather to lighting appliances, balloons and even journals.

Nevertheless, this enormous list of links is useful for retrieving modern globes. At the top of such a list, usually there are links leading to various online shops (for example www.world-globe-superstore.com ) which sell globes; there will also be a few links on globe producers. Online shops are very good starting points because, in contrast to globe producers, they offer globes made by different companies. A treasure trove for modern globes are Internet sites publishing price comparisons between different online shops (shop.bizrate.com). These sites present search results conducted among a wide range of globe selling companies and online globes shops, respectively. If one enters the term "globes" to conduct a search in such a site, one gets a neat list, usually with illustrations, of a great variety of modern globes. This way, one avoids time-consuming searches in many different sites and will still get an overview on what is available. In a next step, by using specific names of globes mentioned on the list as search terms for another, more specific, search with Google, one will get further, more detailed, information. Examples of search terms producing good results in regularly conducted searches are "speciality globes", "inflatable globes", "levitation globes", "relief globes", "clock globes" and "giant globes".

It is worth the effort, by the way, to look at more than just the first page of a long list of links produced by a search engine. Often, useful information will also be found further down the list.

For example, one may find various special makes of giant globes (about 1.8 metres in diameter) on www.1worldglobes.com/alumglobes.htm; globes made of synthetic material (diameters up to 5 metres) that may serve as eye-catchers at exhibitions are found on www.southernballoonworks.com/giantballspage.htm. Instructions on making modern globes are rare; they cover the whole range from hobby to professional globe making. Hobby globe makers, for example, will find instructions how to make an "inexpensive giant globe" from papier-mâché on www.geocities.com/MadisonAvenue/4094/globe.html. A semi professional explanation of the mechanics of "levitating globes" is available on http://www.geocities.com/dsligar.geo/globe.html, while www.geo-institut.de/prod_globus/prod_globus_b2.html [verschwunden] contains a professional description of the production processes involved in making modern relief globes. The link mentioned last is exceptional, as in this case the producing company offers some insight into its own production processes.


 

The Library of Congress Geography and Map Division's Globe Collection

Ronald Grim

The Library of Congress Geography and Map Division has a substantial collection of globes, globe gores, and related material, a collection that has received limited publicity and has not been studied extensively. A summary article appeared in the Washington Map Society's The Portolan in 1984 (1). Pertinent Library of Congress globes are also identified in Ena Yonge's catalog of pre-1850 globes in the United States and in Deborah Warner's bibliography of nineteenth-century American globes (2). A few of the Library's globes have also been described in separate journal articles (3). However, a substantial number of globes have been added to the collection since the compilation of these lists and articles. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the Library's globe collection and to update the 1984 article, analyzing the numbers and types of globes, providing an assessment of the strengths of the collection, and mentioning some of the more important globes.

While it has been generally accepted that the majority of the Library's globes date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and were produced in the United States, a recent numerical tabulation confirms this assumption. Fortunately, most of the globes have been catalogued and bibliographic records can be accessed through the Library's online catalog (http://catalog.loc.gov/). There is, however, a substantial accumulation of globe gores, most of which are not catalogued. It is important that the gores be included in this tabulation since most of the twentieth-century globes were received on copyright deposit and globe manufacturers often submitted gores as the record for copyright deposit rather than the actual globe.

There has been a concerted effort during the last year to label and place the pre-1900 globes, which are of varying sizes, in a logical and consistent arrangement in a limited amount of space within the Division's vault. As part of this project, the cataloging information is being reviewed and revised with the actual physical storage location specified in the record. Consequently, it was possible to employ a computer-generated search on globe-related classification numbers (G3160, celestial; G3167, lunar and planetary; G3170, terrestrial; G3171, thematic and special format; and 3201.B71, globe gores) to obtain a reasonably accurate count of the globes, but the gores had to be counted manually. The results of this tabulation (Table 1), conducted at the beginning of August 2003, indicate that there are 397 globes and 153 globe gores for a total of 550 globe-related products. Of the cataloged globes, 29 are celestial, nine are of the moon and other planets, 294 are terrestrial, and 65 are thematic or special format globes. Of the 153 globe gores, only 28 have been catalogued; the remainder is filed chronologically in the uncataloged single map collection under the heading "World-Globes." Interspersed with these uncataloged materials are another 35 items consisting of photographs of significant older globes held in other repositories, single engraved atlas pages depicting globes, and a few globe advertisement broadsides.


Table 1: Globes and Globe Gores of the Library of Congress

 

Before 1800

1800s

1900s

Total

Globes:

 

 

 

 

   Celestial

6(2)*

10

13

29

   Planetary

 

 

9

9

   Terrestrial  

18(8)*

63(2)*

213

294

   Thematic

 

 

65

65

Subtotal

24(10)*

73(2)*

300

397

 

 

 

 

 

Gores:

 

 

 

 

   Uncataloged

10(6)*

10

105

125

   Cataloged

9(5)*

4(1)*

15

28

Subtotal

19(11)*

14(1)*

120

153

 

 

 

 

 

Total

43(21)*

87(3)*

420

550

*Number in parentheses indicates facsimile reproduction


The tabulation confirms the assumption that the globe collection consists primarily of twentieth-century materials - approximately 75 percent. The remaining 25 percent is composed of 43 pre-1800 globes and gores and 87 nineteenth-century globes and gores.

Caspar Vopell's ca. 1543 globe with armillary spheres, the Library of Congress's oldest globe. For the pre-1800 period, there are 24 globes and nineteen sets of globe gores for a total of 43 items; 21 of these, however, are facsimile reproductions. The oldest original globe in the collection is a ca. 1543 terrestrial globe by Caspar Vopell (1511-1561). The small 3-inch manuscript globe is mounted within a series of armillary spheres, showing an Earth-centered solar system according to the Ptolemaic concept of the universe. Several other significant early pieces include a 1615 pair of celestial and terrestrial 7.5-inch globes by Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), as well as a set of uncolored gores for each of these globes. There is also a mid-seventeenth century Persian celestial globe with the constellations engraved on a 5.5-inch wooden sphere. The work of the prolific Italian globe maker, Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718) is represented by a pair of 44-inch terrestrial and celestial globes dated 1692 and 1693, along with a ribbon-mounted set of the terrestrial gores; an 1696 18-inch terrestrial globe dedicated to King William III of England; and the rare Libro de' Globi (1697), an atlas documenting Coronelli's entire range of globe products.

The eighteenth-century items include a British globe, namely John Senex's (d. 1740) 1730 3-inch terrestrial pocket globe and the accompanying case lined with a celestial map. There are also several examples of German and French globes including Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr's (1671-1750) 1750 8-inch terrestrial globe; Rigobert Bonne's (1727-1794) and Joseph Jérôme LeFrançais de Lalande's (1732-1807) 1775 12-inch terrestrial and celestial globes; Charles François Delamarche's (1740-1817) 1785 and 1790 2-inch terrestrial globes mounted within armillary spheres; and Johann Georg Klinger's (1764-1806) 1790 2-inch terrestrial globe.

Globes first began to be produced in the United States at the beginning of the nineteenth century. For that century, the collection has ten celestial globes, 63 terrestrial globes, and fourteen sets of globe gores for a total of 87 items. Approximately 70 percent of these were produced in the United States. Based on the publishers that can be identified, it appears that largest concentration of American globe manufacturers were located in the New England states and New York state. Three of the Library's globes were made in Vermont, fifteen in the Boston area, six in various Connecticut towns, ten in the New York City area, and fifteen in Albany and other upstate New York towns. Only eight were made in Chicago and these were issued near the end of the century.

Of foremost importance among the nineteenth-century materials are twelve items related to America' first globe maker James Wilson (1763-1855). Although Wilson started producing globes about 1810 in Bradford, Vermont, he eventually relocated his firm in Albany, New York. The Library's collection of Wilsoniana consists of two 1811 13-inch terrestrial globes; a pair of 13-inch terrestrial and celestial globes dated 1819 and 1820 respectively; a pair of 3-inch terrestrial and celestial globes dated ca. 1820 and mounted in matching single pedestal stands; another ca. 1820 3-inch terrestrial globe mounted between two wooden uprights on wooden cross pieces; an 1828 13-inch terrestrial globe bearing the imprint Wilson and Sons; a pair of 13-inch celestial and terrestrial globes dated 1831 and 1834 respectively; and a final pair of 13-inch terrestrial and celestial Wilson globes published in 1837 by his son in law Cyrus Lancaster (ca. 1802-1862). In addition there is a portfolio containing a small selection of family letters and newspaper clippings relating to the history of the firm, including an advertising broadside dated 1828.

The works of other early American globe makers include five globes by Josiah Loring (1775-1840) produced in Boston. His work is represented by four terrestrial globes and one celestial globe (ranging from 9.5-inch to 12-inch diameters) dated between 1830-1868. There are also eight globes by Gilman Joslin (1804-ca. 1886) and firm of Boston, including 6-inch and 10-inch terrestrial globes issued between 1840 and 1890. The work of Josiah Holbrook (1788-1854) and the Holbrook's Apparatus Manufacturing firm of Wethersfield, Connecticut, consists of an 8-inch terrestrial and four 3-inch pocket globes. The Library has another ten examples of primarily nineteenth-century small pocket or educational globes produced by both American and British firms.

Several other nineteenth-century globes of special note include Elbert Perce's (1831-1869) magnetic globe published in 1864 by Charles Scribner of New York. It is accompanied by eight magnets with small pictures of animals or people in ethnic dress and an instructional manual by educator Mary Howe Smith explaining the use of the globe in geography instruction. In 1875, Ellen E. Fitz (b. 1836), the first American woman involved in globe production, patented a mounting with double circles representing day and twilight. Her work is illustrated with two globes -- a 6-inch and a 12-inch dated ca. 1879 and 1877 respectively. The Library also holds a copy of Fitz's separately published text, Handbook of the Terrestrial Globe, or Guide to Fitz's New Method of Mounting and Operating Globes (Boston, 1876), that explains how her globe could be used in the classroom. There are several examples of the "Telegraph Globe" published in 1872 to show Samuel F.B. Morse's telegraph lines. These are 6-inch and 12-inch globes distributed by the Silicate Book Slate Company, a New York City school supply firm. One of the more unusual globes in the collection is "Bett's Portable Globe" produced by the British firm George Philip and Son. The Library holds three examples, which were issued in 1866, 1905, and 1920, of this cloth globe stretched over an umbrella-like structure. There is also an example of a world balloon globe produced by Ebe Pocock in Bristol, England, about 1830. When inflated with hot air, this thin paper balloon would have a diameter of about 43 inches.

For the twentieth century, there are 420 globes and gore sets. Thirteen of these are celestial globes while nine depict the moon and various planets including Mercury, Mars, and Venus. Most of the planetary and lunar globes were produced by Replogle Globes for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with cartography by the U.S. Geological Survey. The overwhelming number of twentieth-century globes, 213 in total, are terrestrial globes, while 65 are classed as thematic or special format globes. In addition, there are 120 sets of globe gores.


Table 2: Major 20th Century American Globe Producers Represented in the Library of Congress’s Collections

 

 

 

 

 

Globes

Gores

Total

George F. Cram (Indianapolis)

55

4

59

Weber Costello (Chicago)

26

30

56

Rand McNally (Chicago)

31

17

48

Replogle (Chicago)

38

3

41

National Geographic Society (Washington, D.C.)

31

0

31

Denoyer-Geppert (Chicago)

3

23

26

A. J. Nystrom (Chicago)

6

11

17

Hammond (Mapplewood, NJ)

7

6

13

Totals

197

94

291


By tabulating the major producers of twentieth-century globes (see table 2), it is evident that eight American companies are responsible for the majority -- 291 items or approximately 70 per cent of the twentieth-century portion of the collection. The largest number of globes was contributed by George F. Cram Company of Indianapolis, with 59 items. The next largest depositors of globes and gores are three firms located in Chicago - Weber Costello, Rand McNally, and Replogle. A rather late entrant into globe publishing, the Cartographic Division of the National Geographic Society in Washington, DC, has contributed 31 globes since the early 1970s. Two more Chicago firms, Denoyer-Geppert and A. J. Nystrom, and the Hammond Company in the New York City suburb of Maplewood, New Jersey, complete the list of major twentieth-century American globe producers. What is very striking when comparing the nineteenth-century globe production with the twentieth century is the dramatic shift from New England and New York manufacturers to Midwestern United States firms, with an almost exclusive concentration in Chicago. Most of the terrestrial globes produced by these U.S. companies are moderately sized (6 to 16 inches in diameter) general reference globes intended for the school and educational market with successive editions providing corrections and updated information about the world's rapidly changing political geography.

The Library of Congress's example of a 50-inch military globe, known as "The President's Globe." It was produced during World War II by Weber Costello based on cartography prepared by the U.S. Office of Strategic Services.Despite the uniform character of twentieth-century American globe production, there are a number of noteworthy items, especially some of the larger items that should be mentioned. One, known as the "President's Globe," is a 50-inch military globe produced by Weber Costello based on the cartographic work of the Office of Strategic Services during World War II. At the request of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, about a dozen copies were constructed, one of which was placed in his office and is now maintained at the Roosevelt Presidential Library in Hyde Park, New York. Roosevelt gave a copy to Winston Churchill, while other copies were placed in the Senate and House Chambers of the U.S. Capitol. It is the latter copy that is now in the Geography and Map Division, which also holds a set of unmounted gores. Another unusual globe, published just after World War II in 1946, is titled the "Coca Cola Globe." Distributed by the soft-drink bottling company to schools, the globe was designed to be assembled by students in the classroom. The Division does not have an example of the assembled globe, but it holds a set of unassembled globe sections and a manual with detailed instructions for constructing a globe with a 30-inch diameter. There is also a manual for constructing a globe with a 50-inch diameter.

Many of the thematic globes portray topics in the physical sciences; most show physical relief with no overlay of cultural information. Other physical topics that are depicted include continental drift, earthquakes, climates, and animal distributions. One of the Library's largest globes, which is displayed in the hallway entrance to the Geography and Map Division, is a rotating physical globe with a 6-foot diameter, one of eight produced by Terr-a-qua Globes and Maps in Santa Anna, California, between 1966 and 1973. It was originally presented to the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration in honor of Capt. and Mrs. Finne Ronne, mid-twentieth-century Antarctic explorers, but is now on permanent loan to the Library. Another globe of similar size is on display on the first floor of the Library's James Madison building. It is a 6-foot geo-physical and oceanographic globe, which was presented to the Library by Rand McNally on the occasion of the 27th International Geographical Congress held in Washington, DC in 1992. In a recent donation of papers and maps collected and compiled by Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen while preparing comprehensive maps of the ocean floors from the 1950s to the 1970s, there are five unpublished globes, four made with layers of plaster on a metal sphere and another with acrylic applied to a basketball, which summarize the results of their ocean-floor relief research. There are also several special format globes including a "Rubik's World Puzzle" made by the Ideal Toy Company in 1982 and three examples of R. Buckminster Fuller's (1895-1983) "Dymaxion Globe", dated 1992 and 1993.

While most of the twentieth century globes have been received through copyright deposit, there has been a conscientious effort since the 1980s to acquire through purchase and gift older globes, especially those providing a record American globe production and those serving as representative samples of European and Asian globe production from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. One of the largest recent acquisitions was the purchase and donation of 23 primarily nineteenth globes from the estate of Howard E. Welsh in 1991. Another large acquisition was the donation of seventeen late-twentieth-century globes from "The Power of Maps" exhibit as displayed at the International Gallery, S. Dillon Ripley Center, Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, from November 1993 to January 1994. In addition, funds from the Philip Lee Phillips Society, the friends group of the Geography and Map Division, and the Madison Council, the support group of the Library of Congress, have been used to make retrospective purchases of several significant older globes.

The Geography and Map Division actively seeks to add globes to its collection. The Division, however, cannot collect comprehensively since acquisition funds are necessarily applied to all types of cartographic materials -maps, atlases, and globes, both current and retrospective. Two important sources of current American globes are copyright deposit and transfer from U.S. government agencies. In addition, the Division also attempts to purchase one or two older globes each year, especially to fill gaps in the collection of nineteenth and early twentieth century American globes. Retrospective acquisition funds or gifts funds can be used for these purchases, but gifts of globes not already in the collection are always welcome.

Endnotes
(1) Andrew Modelski, "Globes in the Library of Congress," The Portolan, no. 2 (December 1984), pp. 4-5. (2) Ena L. Yonge, A Catalogue of Early Globes Made Prior to 1850 and Conserved in the United States (New York: American Geographical Society, 1968); and Deborah Jean Warner, "The Geography of Heaven and Earth," Rittenhouse 2 (1987-1988): 14-32, 52-64, 88-104, 109-137. (3) [Andrew Modelski and Ralph Ehrenberg], "Globes," pp. 30-33 in Library of Congress Acquisitions, Geography and Map Division, 1981 (Washington: Library of Congress, 1983); and Arthur H. Robinson, "The President's Globe," Imago Mundi 49 (1997): 143-152. Illustration (will follow):

Illustration 2a & b:
James Wilson's pair of 3-inch celestial and terrestrial globes produced about 1820. Wilson was the first American globe producer, starting about 1810 in Bradford, Vermont.

Illustration 4:
An example of a manuscript globe (acrylic on a basket ball) prepared by Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen as a result of their research from the 1950s to 1970s on the relief of the ocean floors.


 

My Interest in the Conservation of Globes

T. K. McClintock

As a paper conservator it has been my privilege to care for a wide variety of fine art and historic works, but globes have always been of particular interest to me. My introduction to them is undoubtedly a familiar story - looking at maps, before I knew them as "cartographic records", with an appreciation of their graphic quality, their content, and the images they generated of lands unknown and eras past. My earliest professional exposure dates from a visit in 1980 to the National Library in Vienna which was as well known for its expertise in the conservation of globes as for the collection itself. At the time there were very few institutions that had a collective body of knowledge focusing on the conservation of globes (the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, UK and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris also had highly regarded specialists).

Stain reduction on a 36 inch Malby sphere.
I had the good fortune to be asked to study and begin conservation of the fine collection assembled by E. L. Stevenson at the Hispanic Society in New York. Because there were globes of quality from different makers, nations and periods of origin, almost all of which had some compromises to their condition or appearance, it was an excellent introduction to what the particular needs of globes were and how the strategy and techniques for their conservation might be different than for other types of works on paper. Fortunately, these earliest treatments began gradually so that experience could be gained with more straightforward procedures before more complex and challenging ones were undertaken. I was immediately impressed with the need to develop a more well informed knowledge of globes in general and how well cared for examples appeared in particular, for which I am indebted beyond measure to the International Coronelli Society. I also began to understand the difficulty of having the variety of materials (paper, inks, watercolors, varnish, metal, wood, plaster, etc.) from which a globe is fabricated and which have aged differently appear harmonious after treatment.

At the same time I was also working, and continue to work on, other works on paper: old master drawings and prints, modern graphics, historic wallpapers, Japanese screens, architectural records on tracing paper, and large format works of all kinds. Globes are a stimulating complement to these projects because of their three dimensionality, their combination of materials and textures, and the very absorbing graphic depiction of information. Many of the materials, procedures and sensibilities that were brought to these other treatments benefited our approach to the treatment of globes as well. Specialization is certainly a prerequisite for the conservation of globes that are important or that need more than basic care - it is not uncharacteristic for a treatment to take 150 hours and it is very important to know how those resources should be best allocated.

Specialization is characterized by many practical and intellectual qualities - an ability to foresee what possibilities there are for treatment options and to weigh their advantages and disadvantages, to anticipate what resources are required for an appropriate conservation treatment and to be adept at its execution. As for other fine art and historic works, a knowledge of what constitutes an appropriate appearance is informed by a familiarity with and comparison of globes from different makers, editions, historic periods and nations of origin. This connoisseurship is critical for the treatment of the paper and for guiding the efforts of specialists in the treatment of the other materials used in the fabrication of historic globes.

The highlights of my experience with globe conservation include the important globes in institutional collections of course, the Harvard Map Library's pair of Mercators comes to mind immediately, but as memorable are the globes that were the most technically challenging: the first full removal of gores, the first 36 inch sphere, the first terrestrial and celestial pair, the first sphere in need of reconstruction, and the collaboration with other specialists in furniture, paintings and metals conservation to have a treatment reflect the highest standards. The pleasure of conservation is very much in its practice.


Studio TKM Ltd., Conservation of Fine Art and Historic Works on Paper
1, Fitchburg Street C-219
Somerville MA 02143
USA
Phone: (614) 666 9010

T. K. McClintock is a graduate of Boston College and the Cooperstown Graduate Program in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. He directs a private practice devoted to the conservation of historic works on paper including fine art, Asian paintings and prints, and decorative arts as well as cartographic records and globes.


 

Around the Globe

One may visit the web site www.scianna.it (restauro in diretta) where our member Nicolangelo Scianna shows conservation work in progress, carried out in his workshop at Forli, Italy; a 110 cm celestial globe by Vincenzo Coronelli (concave version) is being restored. ed

Through the good offices of Dr. Wilhelm Seitz, an extraordinary object, a "Telegraphy Globe", was returned to the Museum für Kommunikation (Communication Museum) in Nuremberg, Germany, by the Niederlassung Brief der Deutschen Post AG at Landshut.

This remarkable terrestrial globe was presented to Heinrich Ritter von Frauendorfer in 1905, together with honorary Landshut citizenship, on the occasion of the festive reopening of the Oberpostamt (regional post office) at Landshut, in recognition of his great efforts in this connection. (On 1st January 1904, Frauenhofer was promoted to Minister of State in the newly created Royal Bavarian Ministry of Transport responsible for both the postal service and the railways).

The globe was individually made, probably by a Landshut master belt-maker. The sphere of 26 cm diameter is made of brass. The continents protrude from the surface, with the silver plated oceans set off by their different colouring. The city of Landshut is marked by a red stone. The "Telegraphy Globe" is fixed to a ring bearing the engraved inscription "DIE DANKBARE HAUPTSTADT LANDSHUT IHREM EHRENBÜRGER EXCELLENZ RITTER VON FRAUENDORFER" (the grateful capital city of Landshut to its honorary citizen, His Excellency Ritter von Frauendorfer). The front of the globe shows an engraved medallion depicting the Landshut regional post office. On the back of the globe there is a similar image of the city of Landshut. Telegraphic wires surround the globe from two sides, being held up by two masts on opposite sides of the globe. This elaborate construction symbolises the special importance of telegraphy at that time.

The globe rests on four columns shaped like lion's paws at the base. The columns in turn rest on a wooden socket with a round inlayed case at its centre. It bears the inscription: "Zur Erinnerung an die Wiedereröffnung des K. OBERPOSTAMTES LANDSHUT - 1. OCTOBER 1905" (to commemorate the reopening of the royal regional post office at Landshut, on 1st October 1905). Inside the case, there is a hand-written declaration of honorary citizenship for the minister of state, with signatures by the mayor and royal counsel Otto Marschall, as well as by Count Spreti, first chairman of the community assembly).

To everybody's surprise, in the course of research on the history of the Nuremberg Communication Museum's collections, it turned out that the transport minister's son had donated the globe to the museum in 1934. Probably because of war time confusion and decades during which the museum remained closed, records about the globe's whereabouts got lost and the object itself was forgotten. It is possible that it had been relocated to Landshut on loan from Nuremberg.

Yolanda Ieseanu, Nuremberg, Germany

During the 20th International Conference on the History of Cartography held from 15-20 June 2003 in Boston, (Massachusetts) and in Portland (Maine), David Jaffee presented a paper on "James Wilson and the Village Enlightenment: Cartography and Culture in the Rural United States, 1790-1840" (see also our column "New globe literature") which also touched upon globes. During this conference, the Harvard Map Collection organised an exhibition of precious cartographic objects under the heading "Cartographic Treasures at Harvard". The exhibits included globes (James Wilson, John Cary) as well as gores (Willem Janszoon Blaeu, François de Mongenet and the so called Ingolstadt globe gores). In Portland, the second conference venue, the Osher Map Library and the Southworth Planetarium organised the exhibition "Heavens on Earth", one part of which was dedicated to celestial globes.

Jan Mokre, Vienna, Austria

Under the heading "PRENEZ VOTRE ... TEMPS! / HUEL DER ... ZAIT! / NIMM DIR ... ZEIT!" the Musée national d'histoire naturelle in the city of Luxembourg (at 25, rue Münster) has organised an exhibition lasting until 18th July 2004. It illustrates the phenomenon of time and its effects in a diversity of fields such as geology, palaeontology, flora and fauna, as well as human beings; but also regarding the development of calendar research, measurement of time, division of time etc., starting from antiquity up to modern times. The exhibits come from various countries, inter alia there are some from Vienna, Austria: sun dials, perpetual calendars and some globes. The individual topics are - wherever possible - documented in an excellent didactic manner.

Rudolf Schmidt, Vienna, Austria

Alois Fauser, in 1962, was first to publish a list of old globes in Bavaria. A detailed catalogue followed in 1964 as part of general efforts during the 1960s to establish a world list of all old globes. Item no. 81 in this catalogue is a damaged celestial globe of the year 1696, 48 cm in diameter, by Vincenzo Coronelli, owned by the catholic seminary at Regensburg.

Having been commissioned by the bishopric of Regensburg in 2002/2003 to establish an inventory of art works located at the Seminary of St. Wolfgang, I accidentally came across this solitary object, without fittings or stand. I knew that in early modern times globes were conceived as pairs, consisting of one celestial and one terrestrial globe; so, after checking the respective literature on this particular globe maker's importance, I proceeded upstairs, to the attic of St. Jakob's, the church of the former Scottish abbey - the abbey having been home to the episcopal seminary since 1872.

As it turned out, it was precisely there that the terrestrial globe belonging to the documented celestial one had been stored away when the abbey became a seminary. The terrestrial globe, too, was without fittings or stand. Since in that storage place it had not been completely protected against damage by weather conditions, and since its own weight exerted pressure on it, the globe was in a poor state of repair. Europe - on which the globe had rested - had been pressed inside and was hardly recognisable.

Vincenzo Coronelli: Terrestrial globe Ø 48 cm, 1696. Photographer: Rudolf Rappenegger.

Both globes were cleaned and their outer surface stabilised. They were exhibited, for the first time, from May to September 2003, at the museum of the Regensburg diocese.

Around 1700, the Scottish abbey at Regensburg was known as a leading institution for research in the natural sciences, where the earliest known systematic metereological records were being kept. As was customary for libraries in early modern times, the abbey's well known library also included globes. Most of this library's books have been preserved, but almost all other equipment has been lost. Through my rediscovery of the terrestrial globe completing the pair, I was able to add an important item to the globe inventory. The globe is also a significant historical find on the former Scottish abbey's equipment.

Rosa Micus, Regensburg, Germany

Coronelli Society member Prof. Dr. Armin Hüttermann informed us that the Pädagogische Hochschule (teachers' training college) at Luwigsburg, Germany, owns a mechanically driven "tectonic plate globe", with which the various stages of tectonic continental shifts can be demonstrated. One may thus observe the passage of 230 million years of the earth's history. This precisely functioning model was designed and built by Karl Schuster, in the year 2000. Mr. Schuster, a retired lathe operator, is a passionate hobby craftsman.

ed

In 1999, conservator Bettina Elten, commissioned by the Soprintendenza per i beni culturali ed ambientali, sezione archeologica, Palermo, restored a mosaic showing an interesting early representation of an armillary sphere. The mosaic had been discovered on the grounds of the historical excavation site at Solunt near Palermo, Italy.

In my opinion, this mosaic could be the oldest representation of an unequivocally identifiable terrestrial globe inside an armillary sphere. All other depicted spheres, such as those found on old coins, medals, gems or murals, dedicated perhaps to Urania, Victoria or Jupiter, could equally well be interpreted to be celestial spheres. A sphere at the centre of an armillary sphere, however, does represent the terrestrial globe.

The report on this excavation by Dela von Boeselager was published in 1983 under the heading "Antike Mosaiken in Sizilien, Hellenismus und römische Kaiserzeit 3. Jahrhundert v. Christus - 3. Jahrhundert n. Christus" (Giorgio Bretschneider, Rome).

The author writes that the armillary sphere in the mosaic probably originated before the so far oldest known example identified at Gemminos (with rings for the ecliptic, equator, tropic and polar circles, as well as for the colures). Aratus had described an armillary sphere equipped with three parallel circles only (the equator and the tropics) in the first half of the third century; the Solunt armillary sphere, however, shows five circles, with added polar circles. Ms. von Boeselager also describes that there is an outer meridian ring allowing adjustment of the instrument to the celestial pole (polar height) for the performance of astronomic calculations (such as establishment of day lengths for a particular location, for every calendar day; or determination of the geographic locations of sunrise and sunset, or calculation of maximum sun heights at noon). The author also correctly notes that the armillary sphere's axis is pointing north and that it is depicted in perspective - in contrast to known representations of armillary spheres dating back to the end of the Middle Ages or early modern times, when drawing in perspective was not practised.

Rudolf Schmidt, Vienna, Austria

At Vichten, near the city of Luxembourg, the remains of a Roman country villa were discovered during construction work to enlarge a farmhouse. The site was excavated by archaeologists during 1990-1994, revealing very well preserved murals. Of particular interest, however, is a mosaic covering the floor of a former reception hall measuring 61.3 square metres. Restoration work on a small number of mosaic patches that needed repair took a number of years. The mosaic can now be admired in the excellently modernised Musée national d'Histoire et d'Art in Luxembourg.

At the centre of the mosaic, clarified by inscriptions, there are figures of the muse Calliope and of the poet Homer; surrounding them like stars, there are the other eight muses, among them Urania. Urania is seated on a block, holding a pointer in her right hand; she is pointing to an armillary sphere depicted as several - but interwoven - circles; in the centre of the armillary sphere there is a shadow which may possibly indicate the earth. It is highly interesting that this armillary sphere rests on a stand with four legs resembling the stands commonly used for terrestrial and celestial globes, as well as armillary spheres, from the 16th century onwards. In the particular case of the mosaic, four small, apparently cast metal, columns are supporting a horizon ring. The movement of pointing her rod towards the globe performed by Urania is similar to that depicted on the coin of Pomponius Musa: apparently, even around the year 240 A.D., this motive had not lost actuality.

The quality of the mosaic is excellent. Similar examples from the area around Trier-Aachen-Cologne are proof of lively artistic activity. The Vichten mosaic is to be considered as a particularly fine example of art created during that era. It demonstrates, once more, the significance of the armillary sphere, already documented by the Solunt/Palermo mosaic.

Rudolf Schmidt, Vienna, Austria

Christine Kayser, curator of the Musée promenade at Marly, announced at the 10th International Symposium on Globe Studies in Nuremberg (2002) that the Sun King's famous globes are to be mounted again in the Musée promenade inside the park of Marly and will thus become accessible for the general public. After enlargement, the museum will inform visitors about the history as well as the social and political functions of the park at Versailles. The exhibits will include the original plans for the design of the park. There will be reconstructions of historical buildings and, above all, of the technical equipment and installations that enabled the operation of the park's numerous impressive waterworks and fountains.

A special area will be dedicated to the monumental globes created by Vincenzo Coronelli from 1680 to 1683 for Louis XIV, commissioned by Cardinal d'Estrée. Originally, these unique manuscript globes, 3.85 metres in diameter, did not please the Sun King as they deserved. Only twenty years after their construction were the celestial and the terrestrial globe fitted with mountings and, from 1704 until 1715, displayed at Marly castle. They were subsequently kept at the Louvre, from 1722 to 1784 at the Bibliothèque royale, followed by the Bibliothèque nationale. Since 1915, however, they have been stored in wooden boxes, at the Orangerie of the palace of Versaille. Only once, in 1980, were they publicly displayed, as part of the exhibition "Cartes et figures de la terre", held on the occasion of the opening of Centre Pompidou.

There have been repeated calls to make the "globes of Marly" permanently accessible for the general public. Bernard Champigneulle, for example, issued such a call in "Der Globusfreund" no. 17 (1968). In the Musée promenade (http://www.mairie-louveciennes.fr/v_musee.htm) this old dream of globe connoisseurs will now come true. Christine Kayser, in charge of designing the globe exhibition area, will introduce the globes and give viewers some idea about the scientific background at that time. Visitors will find detailed information about the globes' design, construction and form of representation. They will learn about the sources of the geographical and astronomical information represented on the globes and they will receive explanations on the globes' inscriptions and iconography.

ed

The Austrian National Library's Globe Museum is the only museum world-wide where terrestrial and celestial globes, globes of the moon and the planets, as well as globe related instruments, such as armillary spheres, planetaria and telluria, are acquired, formally studied and exhibited to the general public. In 2005, the museum will move its almost 400 exhibits including precious objects on permanent loan, to new premises in a modernised baroque palace in the centre of Vienna. The new Globe Museum will be more easily accessible due to its location near an underground station and a bus stop, and also because of considerably extended opening hours. The holdings of the new Globe Museum will be divided up into two groups: there will be an object oriented research collection (with a room reserved for researchers and visitors with a more academic interest); secondly, there will be the holdings of the concept- and theme oriented general exhibition, which will be designed in a new way and employ modern, including digital, presentation techniques. Groups of visitors, for example from schools, will find a newly designed presentation room equipped with the nessecary techniqual facilities.

Jan Mokre, Vienna, Austria

The 'Gottorf Globe' was world famous in the 17th and in the 18th centuries. This marvel of contemporary craftsmanship had been mounted inside a pleasure pavilion situated in the splendid garden of Gottdorf castle - as a demonstration of interest in science and learning. Duke Frederick III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1597 1659) had commissioned his court scholar, Adam Olearius, from 1650 onwards to design and build this giant walk in globe measuring 3.10 metres in diameter. Besides its extraordinary size, the globe was renowned for its unusual combined representation of earth and the heavens. The earth was depicted on the outside of the sphere, while the starry sky was represented on the sphere's inside surface. It must have been quite a remarkable experience in the 17th century to climb through the globe's narrow hatch and take a seat at a round table equipped with a universal time clock. Seated on a bench, visitors would watch the procession of the artistic representation of the constellations above their heads.

Soon, however, in 1713, the 'Gottorf Globe' was given as a present to Tsar Peter the Great, after a devastating military defeat on the part of the duchy. The Tsar had the globe moved to St. Petersburg, where it is to be found today. A fire in the 18th century destroyed the globe's original paintings, which diminished the masterpiece's authenticity somewhat.

At present, the Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen Schloß Gottorf foundation (www.schloss-gottdorf.de) is in the process of recreating, once more, the lost splendour of the former baroque garden, with its globe pavilion sheltering the 'Gottorf Globe'. Globe reconstruction closely follows the historical conception and great efforts are made to recreate the globe's original appearance as much as ever possible. Of central importance is the representation of earth and sky. Like at the time of Frederick III, the paintings depicting the earth and the sky imitate coloured etchings of maps. The models used by the painters are two 68 cm Willem Janszoon Blaeu globes belonging to the Austrian National Library's Globe Museum in Vienna.

The terrestrial globe had been photographed and transposed into the plane many years ago, so reliable photos were available. After digital cleaning of the photos performed by the Centre for Interdisciplinary Scientific Computing at Heidelberg University, they serve as models for the painters' art work. In the case of the celestial globe, the necessary procedures are even more elaborate: first, the star positions are determined on the basis of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables and precisely marked on the inside surface of the globe. Guided by these markings and incorporating them, the painter then copies the figures representing the constellations onto the concave surface, using the photographs of the Viennese celestial globe as model.

Work in Progress

All this is done to create a largely authentic copy of the historical globe, although it will always be clear that the new 'Gottorf Globe', completed in 2004, is only a reconstruction of the original: we do not know whether the Blaeu globes and maps also served as models at the time of Frederick III; what we do know is that they were part of the court library. This conservation project is being financed by Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.

Ulrich Schneider, Gottdorf, Germany

In this connection Coronelli member Tor E. Rössaak recommends the book: Felix Lühning: Der Gottdorper Globus und das Globushaus im 'Newen Werck'. Dokumentation und Rekonstruktion eines frühbarocken Welttheaters (= Gottorf im Glanz des Barock, Kunst und Kultur am Schleswiger Hof 1544-1713, Band IV, Schleswig 1997).


 

New publications on globes

Elly Dekker: Precession Globes. In: Musa Musaei. Studies on Scientific Instruments and Collections in Honour of Mara Miniati. Hrsg. Marco Beretta, Paolo Galluzzi, Carlo Triarico (Firenze 2003), S. 219-235.

Elly Dekker, Marco van Egmond: Het 'ongewone' globenpaar van Cornelis Covens: uit de hand gelopen hobby of bannbrekende innovatie? In: Caert-Thresoor 33/2003, S. 1-13.

Wolfram Dolz: Präsentation eines Marsglobus im Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon. In: Dresdner Kunstblätter. Zweimonatsschrift der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Heft 05/2003, S. 286f.

Ulrich Freitag: Ein neuer Globus der wirklichen Erdoberfläche. In: Kartographische Nachrichten 53/2003, S. 173f.

David Jaffee: James Wilson and the Early American Globe Makers. In: The Portolan. The Journal of the Washington Map Society, 56/2003, S. 24-33.

T. K. McClintock: Observations on the Conservation of Globes. In: Works of Art on Paper: Books, Documents and Photographs. Techniques and Conservation (= Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2-6 September 2002, hrsg. von Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith, London 2002), S. 135-138.

Arnold Oberschelp: Ein astronomischer Erdglobus. In: Sterne und Weltraum 41/2002, S. 79-81.

Nicolangelo Scianna: Il restauro dei globi di J. W. Blaeu dei musei civici di Trieste. In: Atti dei Civici Musei di Storia e Arte di Trieste 18/2002, S. 255-258.

Peter van der Krogt: Three generations of Van Langerens: globe makers, engravers and a cosmographer. In: IMCOS; Journal of the International Map Collectors Society, No. 91, Winter 2002, S. 25-39.


 

In Memoriam

Arthur D. Baynes-Cope passed away on 27 Dec 2002 after a long illness. He was one of the leading experts in paper and book conservation. From 1960, he was Conservation Officer at the British Museum. Holding a degree in chemistry, he at first specialised in the identification of animal and plant remains; he later concentrated on paper, printing and bookbinding. It is thus not surprising that Arthur D. Baynes Cope was also interested in the conservation and restoration of old globes. His manual, "The Study and Conservation of Globes", is an authoritative text in this field; as a result of his close co-operation with the International Coronelli Society, the work was published in no. 33/34 (1985) of "Der Globusfreund" and also as offprint.

Arthur D. Baynes Cope became internationally known inter alia because of the controversy around the "Vinland map", whose authenticity he denied vehemently. (Proof that the map had been forged was later produced by two American specialists who found convincing evidence that the ink used for the drawings was modern.) Highly regarded by his colleagues around the world, Baynes Cope also contributed greatly to the conservation and appropriate exhibition of the invaluable "Hereford world map". Arthur D. Baynes Cope was accessible for anyone who asked for his advice. He was kind and always glad to help. His colleagues and friends, and even persons who only met him briefly, will keep him in their memory.

Rudolf Schmidt

On 21 September 2003, a few months after having completed his 61st year, International Coronelli Society member Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Scharfe, Vice-President of the German Cartographic Society, who had delivered one of the two celebratory speeches at the Coronelli Society's 50th anniversary in June 2002 (NEWS 2002, pp. 9-19), died unexpectedly in Berlin.

Wolfgang Scharfe was born on 13 June 1942 in Berlin. He studied geography and mathematics at the Freie Universität Berlin, where he subsequently, from 1980 until his death, held the position of Professor of Cartography. Already while working on his dissertation he developed a keen interest in history of cartography. For 30 years (1972-2002), he very successfully chaired the German Cartography Society's "History of Cartography" Working Group. In this framework, he initiated the bi annual History of Cartography Colloquium, which took place regularly from 1982 onwards and became an indispensable forum for history of cartography in the German-language area. Having instigated institutionalised research into history of cartography in the German speaking countries, Wolfgang Scharfe also contributed greatly to the scientific study of globes and globe history.

Johannes Dörflinger

Prof. Mag. Karl Grössbauer, Graz, Austria


 

Globes at Auctions — Auktionsergebnisse

Heide Wohlschläger

From catalogues of Christie's and Sotheby's we draw the following results (left estimates and right hammer price with buyer premium, in English Pounds - US Dollar denoted by $).

CHRISTIE'S South Kensington 11 April 2002

511 - A 2 ¾ -inch diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'A NEW Terrestrial GLOBE by J. Newton 1800' with a (later) unengraved brass meridian half-circle raised on a baluster-turned palisander wood column and concave triangular base with three bun feet - 5 ½ in. (14 cm) high
5,000 - 8,000 — -------

SOTHEBY'S Olympia London 30 May 2002

60 - A 4-inch (10 cm) terrestrial globe by J. C. B. Nuremberg, ca. 1800, signed 'Die Erde wie sie jetzt bekannt J.C.B.', wooden sphere with two halves for the southern and northern hemisphere, contained in rust coloured cylindrical card case
2,500-3,500 — 2,350
61 - A 4-inch (10 cm) celestial globe by Johann Bern. BAUER, Nuremberg, late 18th century, signed 'Globus Coelestis ex tabulis celebrum Astronomi Bode Delineatus a Johan Bern Bauer' contained within a similar case to the previous lot
2,000 - 2500 — 2,115
62 - A tellurian orrery by W. ROBINSON, English, early 19th century, signed on the brass tellurian arm 'W. Robinson', mounted onto a 9-inch circular mahogany base overlaid with hand coloured paper with zodiacal calendar and calendar scale etc. - diameter 9 ½ in. (24 cm)
2,500-3,000 — 3,055
63 - A pair of 6-inch globes by HARRIS, English, ca. 1820, the terrestrial globe signed 'Harris's new improved terrestrial globe illustrating the latest discoveries by W. Harris Globe Maker to the King …' with meridian and horizon ring raised on a mahogany tripod stand with baluster legs and stretcher. The celestial globe similarly mounted - height 8 ¾ in. (22 cm), crack to centre of celestial sphere
3,000 - 5,000 — 7,050
64 - An 8-inch celestial globe by Antonio VALLARDI, Italian, late 19th century, signed 'GLOBE CELESTE del diametro di Cm 20 disegnato dal Prof E. Sergent Milano. Antonio Vallardi. Editore', stand missing
400 - 600 — 682
67 - A pair of 18-inch library globes by Dudley ADAMS, English, late 18th century, the terrestrial globe signed 'Made by D. Adams Globe Maker to the King Inst. Maker to his Majesty's *** & optician to H.R.H the Prince of Wales 1787', the celestial globe signed 'Made by D. Adams Globe manufacturer and mathematical instrument maker, Fleet Street London', each globe with brass meridian ring on a mahogany stand with three tapered tripod legs with cross stretchers - height 44 in. (112 cm)
10,000 - 15,000 — 11,162
68 - A pair of 12-inch terrestrial and celestial globes by Gerard and Leonard VALK, Dutch, ca. 1750, the terrestrial signed '… Ger. et Leon Valk Calcograph Amstelaedam Ravis Ao 1750 cum Privilegio', the celestial globe 'Uranographia Caelum omne hic Complectens, Illa pro ut aucta et ad annum 1750. Completum MAGNO ab HEVELIO correcta es; ita, ejus ex Protoypis, sua noviter haec Ectypa reris Astronomiae cultoribus exhibet et consecrant GER. Et LEON VALK Amstelaedamenses Cu Privilegio'. Both globes are supported on an oak stand consisting of four tapered ebonised pillars with central ebonised column with slot for supporting meridian rings. Both with oak horizon ring with coloured paper zodiacal ring, height 19-in. (48 cm)
50,000 - 60,000 — 58,750
69 - A pair of 9-inch terrestrial and celestial globes by Gerard and Leonard Valk, Dutch, ca. 1750 with the same inscriptions as lot 68, with the exception in the name on the celestial globe 'GER et LEON VALCK - stands as lot 68
35,000 - 45,000 — 41,125
70 - A pair of 6-inch terrestrial and celestial globes by Gerard and Leonard Valk, Dutch, ca. 1750 with the same inscriptions and stands as lot 68
25,000 - 30,000 — 30,550
71 - A gilt brass Italian armillary sphere, 17th century and later carried by a bronze figure of a nude atlas on a three-marble plinth (later?). In the centre of the armillary sphere a later (and irrelevant) celestial globe (Ø 13,8 cm) by 'Ger. et Leonh. Valk Amstelaedamensis' - diameter of sphere including meridian ring 34,7 cm, height overall 91 cm
100,000 - 150,000 — -----
72 - A brass armillary sphere by Johannes WAGNER, German, 1540 with later repairs and replacements, signed on the edge of the horizon ring ' Sphaera materialis per I.O.H. Wagner Norimbergae M. D. XL' mounted on a later turned baluster single column stand, diameter of the sphere 16,2 cm, overall height 33, 7 cm
25,000 - 35,000 — -----

CHRISTIE'S South Kensington 2 July 2002

148 - A mid 16th-century 3 3/8-inch diameter brass celestial globe, supported on a patinated bronze figure of Atlas - height 6 ¾ in. (17,1 cm)
8,000 - 10,000 — -----
150 - A 2 ¾-inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, c. 1785, signed 'A Correct GLOBE with the new Discoveries' contained in an original spherical wooden fishskin-covered case, the interior laid with convex celestial globe gores, signed 'A Correct Globe with y. New Constellations of Dr. Halley & Co.'
3,500 - 4,500 — 5,875
155 - A 1 ¾-inch diameter miniature terrestrial globe, signed 'MPS' in an original blue paper-covered card box, the lid with gilt paper and the title 'Die Erde und ihre Bewohner', a paper strip pasted the inside base of the box showing thirty-two of the Earth's inhabitants
1,500 - 2,000 — 1410
158 - A 2 ¾ -inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by John Newton. The globe was auctioned as lot 511 on 11 April 2002
4,000 - 5,000 — -----
161 - A 2 ¾ inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, signed 'A New & Correct GLOBE of the Earth By I. Senex F.R.S.', c. 1735, contained in the original spherical fishskin-covered wooden case, the interior lined with celestial gores
5,000 - 8,000 — 7050
162 - A 2 ¾ inch (7 cm) diameter celestial globe, English, mid 19th century, signed 'TISLEY GOUGH SQUARE LONDON' with two iron axis pine, in a turned mahogany case with domed lid with flat knob
1,500 - 2,000 — -----
168 - A mid 19th century collapsible paper globe, comprising six flat hand-coloured engraved gores by Augustin LEGRAND, Paris, contained in a wax card envelope with the title 'GLOBE ARTIFICIEL ET MÈCANIQUE A L'USAGE du Petit Geographe Par Augustin Legrand Paris'
1,000 - 1,200 — -----
171 - E. L. STEVENSON, Terrestrial And Celestial Globes Their History And Construction Including A Consideration Of Their Value As Aids In The Study Of Geography And Astronomy, New Haven; The Hispanic Society of America, 1921, 2 volumes, 8°, first edition
300 - 400 — -----
178 - A pair of 10-inch (25.4 cm) diameter table globes, the terrestrial signed 'JORDGLOB Utgifven af C. AKRELL, 1864. Tillverkas af L. C. Hasselgren Stockholm', the celestial ‚HIMMELSGLOB L. C. Hasselgren'; both spheres mounted with unengraved meridian half-circle, raised on a baluster turned and ebonised fruitwood column and plinth base
3,500 - 4,500 — 3,525
179 - A 24-inch (61 cm) diameter (?) [ONLY 1 ½ foot - ca. 46-48 cm - globes by Coronelli are known] celestial globe by Vincenzo CORONELLI on a polychrome wooden 19th-century stand - 41 in. (104,2 cm) high
15,000 - 20,000 — -----
180 - A 18-inch (45,7 cm) diameter celestial globe by Matthaeus GREUTER, Rome 1636, with later wooden meridian with manuscript paper circle, the mahogany stand with copied paper horizon raised on four baluster turned legs united by cross stretchers with a turned meridian support - 28 in. (71.1 cm) high
50,000 - 80,000 — -----
184 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'Ce Globe du Ciel a été desiné selon l'Observation presente de l'Astronomie de Paris de trios cens étoiles de Jean Pigeon Mathe dedié à […] le Duc d'Orleans' with a later brass hour- and meridian ring, the horizon ring raised on four baluster turned mahogany legs [later?], united by oak cross-stretchers to central turned meridian support - 8 ½ in. (21.5 cm) high
4,000 - 5,000 — -----
185 - A 15-inch (38,1 cm) diameter terrestrial relief globe, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE en relief de E. Schotte & Cie de Berlin'; the painted sphere laid with plaster relief and applied with labels for place names, with a stamped brass meridian half circle raised on an ebonised and baluster turned wooden column and circular plinth base - 29 1/2in. (75 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 — 3,760

SOTHEBY'S Olympia 30 October 2002

119 - A 1 ½ -inch terrestrial globe with box and coloured prints of inhabitants, German first quarter 19th century, unsigned, original pale blue card box with cartouche to the lid reading 'THE EARTH and its Inhabitants' 5 x 5,7 cm
1,000 - 1,500 — 1292
120 - A 2 ¾ -inch (7,5 cm) terrestrial pocket globe, first quarter 19th century, retailers cartouche WEST LONDON has been laid over the maker's cartouche, containing in a fishskin covered wooden case with a celestial convex map applied to the inside
2,000 - 2,500 — 3,760
121 - A 3-inch terrestrial globe, American, ca. 1840, the wooden sphere opening out to reveal a world map with cartouche reading 'HOLBROOK Mfg Co'
1,000 - 1,200 — 1292
122 - A 2 ¾ -inch pocket globe, English, signed 'A New GLOBE of the Earth by R. Cushee 1731' contained within a fishskin case with hand-coloured concave celestial gores applied to the interior - 7 cm diam.
3,000 - 5,000 — 6,462
A 21/2 -inch terrestrial globe, German, by Peter BAUER, with cartouche reading 'Neuste Darstellung der ERDE von P.B.' - 6,4 cm diam.
1,000 - 1,500 — -----
124 - A 4-inch terrestrial globe with cartouche reading 'Globe Terrestre A. N. LEBÈGUE & Co, EDITEURS Rd.j. Madeleine No. 46 BRUXELLES', the sphere fitted onto a decorative gilt brass stand with tripod base, contained within original maker's wooden case, height of case 20 cm
800 - 1,200 — 1058
125 - A Ptolemaic armillary sphere, early 19th century, signed on the cartouche of the central globe 'Delamarche, No 12 Rue la Jardinet Paris', the pasteboard and wooden armillary sphere with engraved paper is mounting on a turned ebonised stand, height 45 cm
3,000 - 5,000 — 3,290
126 - A heliocentric armillary sphere, French, unsigned, early 19th century, the pasteboard and wooden armillary sphere with engraved paper is mounting on a turned ebonised stand - height 47 cm
3,000 - 5,000 — -----
129 - A 12-inch celestial globe, Italian, signed 'GLOBO CELESTE …. ROMA Presso la Cali.o Cam.le 1792 Inciso dal P. Gio. M.a Cassini C.R.S.', the sphere is mounting on a later plastic stand - height 48,5 cm
3,000 - 4,000 — -----
130 - A 12-inch terrestrial globe, Italian, signed 'GLOBO TERRESTRE NUOVEAMENTE DELINEATO RETTIFICATO ED ACCRESCUITO GIUSTA LE PIU RECENTI SCOPERTE ROMA 1845', on a later plastic stand, height 48 cm
2,500 - 3,500 — 2,938
131 - A 18-inch terrestrial globe, American, late 19th century, signed 'Andrews 18 inch terrestrial globe Chicago Andrews & Co', with brass meridian supported by a walnut stand carved with decorative foliate pattern comprising three arch supports themselves supported by three columns each with carved Corinthian capital, joined by carved and moulded stretcher with compass - height 112,5 cm
5,000 - 8,000 — -----
132 - A brass planetarium with tellurian and lunarium attachments, English, ca. 1810, signed on the brass drum 'Thos Harris & Son, Opposite the British Museum London', with a 2 ½ inch terrestrial globe by J. Newton of 1800, height 50 cm
30,000 - 50,000 — -----

CHRISTIE'S London - 5 November 2002

1 - A 13 3/8-inch (34 cm) diameter celestial globe by Willem Janszoon BLAEU, 1603/after 1621, signed with 'Guilielmus Ianssonius Blaeu', with brass meridian ring, the horizon ring raised on four ebonised legs with bun feet united by cross stretchers supporting the circular base and meridian support, the underside inscribed with a 6 or a 9 - 20 1/2in. (52 cm) high
80,000 - 120,000 — 83,650
2 - A 8-inch (20,3 cm) diameter celestial globe by Isaac HABRECHT II, Strasbourg 1621, with imprint 'Sculptura et impressione Iacob ab Heyde MDCXXI […]genti', with a modern ebonised wooden mounting with box cover with four brass hooks and eyes and carrying handle
15,000 - 20,000 — 16,730
3 - A 19 ¼ inch (49 cm) diameter celestial globe by Matthäus GREUTER, Rome 1636 - see auction Christie's South Kensington 2 July 2002, lot 180
50,000 - 60,000 — -----
4 - A 18 ½ inch (47 cm) diameter celestial globe by Vincenzo CORONELLI, London 1696, dedicated to William III of England, with manuscript wooden meridian circle graduated on four quadrants, wooden stand - the octagonal horizon raised on four baluster turned legs united by similarly turned cross stretchers to a circular base and turned meridian support - 29in. (73,7 cm) high
60,000 - 80,000 — 89,150
5 - A 8-inch (20,3 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by Georg Matthäus SEUTTER, Augsburg, ca. 1710, signed 'GLOBUS TERRESTRIS juxta recentissimas ob.servatio. et navigations peritissimor Geograph. Accuratissime delineat, cura et sumtibus, MATTH. SEUTERI Chalcogr: August', with brass meridian and hour ring with pointer, the mahogany horizon ring with hand-coloured paper ring raised on four ebonised and turned tapering columns united by cross stretchers with a small circular base and meridian support - 11 ¼ in. (28,5 cm) high
8,000 - 12,000 — 8,365
6 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe by Gerard & Leonhard VALK, Amsterdam 1700/after 1711, with brass meridian and hour ring with pointer, oak horizon with hand coloured paper ring on an oak and mahogany Dutch-style stand with four turned legs united by cross-stretchers supporting a circular base and meridian support - 19 in. (48,2 cm) high
25,000 - 35,000 — -----
7 - A 12 ½ inch (31,7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by Joh. Gabr. DOPPELMAYR, Nuremberg 1728, brass meridian and hour ring with pointer, the octagonal horizon raised on four turned and tapering legs united by cross stretchers to the circular base with meridian support - 18 ¼ in. (46,3 cm) high; in the base housing a octagonal gilt and silver horizontal astronomical compass sundial 'Johan Martin in Augspurg 48' - 2 5/8 in. (6,7 cm) wide
25,000 - 30,000 — 57,360
8 - A 5 ¼ inch (13,3 cm) diameter celestial globe by Georg Moritz LOWITZ, Nuremberg 1747with brass meridian and hour ring with pointer, the pasteboard horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper supported on a Dutch-style stand with four turned columns united by cross stretchers to the circular meridian support - 9 ¼ in. (23,5 cm) high
14,000 - 16,000 — -----
9 - A 9-inch (22,9 cm) diameter celestial globe by Didier ROBERT DE VAUGONDY, Paris 1754 with pasteboard meridian and hour ring (later) with gilt-brass pointer, the pasteboard horizon supported on four curved and red-edged quadrant supports on a turned and ebonised wooden column and circular plinth base - 20 ½ in. (52 cm) high
8,000 - 12,000 — 7,767
10 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter table globes by Andrea ÅKERMAN/Fredric AKREL, Uppsala 1759/1779. The terrestrial globe signed 'GLOBUS TERRAQUEUS cura Societ. Cosmograph. Upsal. Editus A°. 1759 ab Andrea Åkerman … Emendatus Opera Friderici Akrel ad Reg. Acad. Scient. Stockholm Sculpt. 1779', the celestial 'ATLANTI Acad. Ups. Scientiarumq, R.R.S.S.Coll. Nom.Praes. etc. Illustr.mo Excellent.o Com. ac Domine Dom C. EHRENPREUS Hunc GLOBUM COELESTEM Ex Flamstedii Catalogo et recentissimis De la Caillii observationibus ad Annum 1760 adornatum Consecrat Societas Cosmogr. Ups.s Jnterprete A. Åkerman Reg. Soc. Scient. Sculpture 1759.', both spheres with brass meridian and hour ring with pointer, octagonal mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper raised on four turned legs united by shaped cross stretchers to the meridian support - 19 ¼ in. (48,9 cm) high
22,000 - 25,000 — 23,900
11 - A unique pair of 8 ½ inch ( 21,5 cm) diameter manuscript globes by I. CH. DIBOLD; Durlach 1783. The terrestrial signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE PAR I. CH. DIBOLD PRO R.A DOURLAC 1783', the celestial 'GLOBE CELESTE PAR I.CH. DIBOLD PRO R. A DOURLAC 1783', both spheres mounted with a paper-covered wooden meridian ring, the wooden horizon ring covered with engraved paper raised on a Dutch-style ebonised wooden stand with four turned legs united by cross-stretchers to a turned meridian support - 14 ½ in. (36,8 cm) high
35,000 - 45,000 — -----
12 - A 9-inch (22,8 cm) diameter celestial globe by William BARDIN, London 1785, signed 'THE CELESTIAL GLOBE Accompanying the GEOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE. Published as the Act directs, by Harrison & Co. No. 18, Paternoster Row, Apr. 1, 1785. made by W. BARDIN, Fleet Street, LONDON' with brass meridian and mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper ring on four baluster turned mahogany legs united by turned cross stretchers to the meridian support - 12 ½ in. (31,7 cm) high
9,000 - 10,000 — -----
13 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by Daniel Friedrich SOTZMANN, Nuremberg 1792, edited '... im Verlag des Mechanici Beringer zu Nürnberg 1792'. Brass meridian ring, octagonal wooden horizon ring with hand-coloured engraved paper on four carved, tapering and fluted legs, each mounted at the top with a carved and gilt rosette, united by carved cross stretchers to the turned and fluted meridian support, the four feet each with carved and gilt inverted tulip decoration - 20 ½ in. (52 cm) high
13,000 - 15,000 — -----
14 - A 4-inch (10 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, socalled "silent globe",showing Cook's second and third voyages with numerous dates, showing rivers and mountains, but no text, not signed, but made by Franz Ludwig GÜSSEFELD, 1798. Tasmania shown as a promontory. The globe with a stamped brass meridian ring, signed 'Jenig fecit', the South Pole with a butterfly screw, in a later mahogany Dutch-style stand with hand-coloured printed horizon paper ring - 5 3/4in. (17.1 cm) high
3,000 - 4,000 — ------
15 - A pair of 4-inch (10,1 cm) diameter globes by Johann Berhard BAUER, Nuremberg, ca. 1801. the terrestrial signed 'GLOBUS TERRESTRIS ex tabulis celebrimi Geographe Sozmann. Delineatus a Joh. Bernahrd Bauer - C. R. Dreykorn Nürnbg 1801[?]', the celestial 'GLOBUS COELESTIS ex tabulis celebrimi Astronomi Bode Delineatus a Iohan Bern. Bauer. - Chris:Hein:Kumet.sc.', both spheres with stamped brass meridian ring in a Dutch-style stand - 6 3/4in. (17,1 cm) high
15,000 - 18,000 — -----
16 - A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by Charles François DELAMARCHE, Paris, 1801, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE RÉDIGÉ astronomiquement et où se trouvent trois voyages du Capit. COOK, ses découvertes et celles de la Peyrouse sur la Nlle Hollande la Nlle Caledie et sur la partie occident de l'Amerique Septentrionale A PARIS par C. F. Delamarche Géog. Rue du Jardinet No. 13, vis-à-vis celle de l'Eperon 1801' the wooden meridian and mahogany horizon ring with hand-coloured engraved paper raised on four baluster turned ebonised wooden legs united by cross stretchers to the central meridian support - 21 ¾ in. (55,2 cm) high
10,000 - 12,000 — 9,560
18 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe by Johann Elert BODE, Nuremberg, 1804, German, signed ‚…Verfertigt und Verlegt von Joh: Georg Franz in Nürnberg' with heavy engraved brass meridian ring, in a mahogany-veneered fruitwood stand, octagonal horizon raised on four elegantly inswept and tapering square-section legs, each with a gilt-painted rosette at the top, united by hipped cross stretchers to the central tapering square-section meridian support - 20 3/4in. (52,7 cm) high
9,000 - 10,000 — -----
21 - A 12 ½-inch (31,7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe signed 'ERDKUGEL nach astronomischen und trigonometrischen Bestimmungen entworfen und gezeichnet von Jos. Jüttner Hauptm: und Frau: Lettany Lieutnt: der k:k:östr: Artillerie im Jahre 1822 zu PRAG' with brass meridian and ebonised wooden horizon ring with hand-coloured engraved paper on four elegantly curved square-section ebonised wooden legs, each with a gilt-painted rosette at the top, united by cross stretchers - 16 3/4in. (42,5 cm) high
10,000 - 12,000 — 10,157
22 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by C. SMITH & SON, London 1830, with brass meridian ring, wooden horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper on a tall mahogany stand, four curved quadrant supports to a baluster turned column with meridian support and three scroll-topped inswept legs terminating in scroll feet with castors, a glazed compass case held between - 31 in. (48,8 cm) high
8,000 - 10,000 — 13,145
23 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by Charles DIEN, Paris 1834, the sphere held in a stamped brass meridian circle with a fixed and unengraved colure which provides the axis for the moving with metal horizon, the meridian raised at an angle of 40 ½° on a turned alabaster column and circular plinth base - 22 1/2in. (57.1 cm) high
4,000 - 5,000 — -----
24 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter globes, both spheres signed 'MADE by S. S. Edkins son in Law to the late T. M. BARDIN Salisbury Sq.e London'; brass meridian, the wooden horizon with hand-coloured paper raised on four baluster-turned ebonised legs united by cross-stretchers - 18 ¼ in. (46,3 cm) high
13,000 - 15,000 — 11,950
25 - A 2-inch (5 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe, signed 'NEWTON'S NEW Terrestrial GLOBE 1835' with two iron axis pins, contained in cylindrical turned wooden case in two halves, the outside painted green - 2 3/4in. (7 cm) high
2,500 - 3,500 — 3,346
26 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial by G. & J. CARY, London 1839, the celestial by J. & W. CARY, London 18[2?]6. Both spheres with stamped brass meridian rings on a tall and elegant mahogany stand - 26 ½ in. (67,2 cm) high
15,000 - 20,000 — -----
27 - A pair of 9 1/2 -inch (24 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'GLOBE ADOPTÉ PAR LE CONSEIL DE L'UNIVERSITÉ Maison DELAMARCHE Rue Serpente No. 25 Paris 1845', the celestial 'GLOBE CÉLESTE Approuvé par l'Université. PAR A. DELAMARCHE. Paris 7, Rue du Battoiv.' Both spheres with pasteboard meridian; the wooden horizon ring raised on four curved quadrants supports on a turned and ebonised wooden column and circular plinth base - 21 in. (53,3 cm) high
13,000 - 15,000 — -----
28 - A pair of 4 ½-inch (11,5 cm) diameter globes by NEWTON, London ca. 1846. The terrestrial signed 'NEWTON'S New improved Terrestrial Globe, Containing the latest Discoveries. 66, Chancery Lane London', the celestial 'NEWTON'S New & Improved Celestial Globe 66, Chancery Lane London. 1846.' Both spheres with an unengraved brass meridian half-circle raised on a baluster turned mahogany column and circular plinth base - 7 ½ in. (19 cm) high
8,000 - 12,000 — -----
29 - A 18-inch (45,7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe by '… THOS MALBY & SON MAP & GLOBE SELLERS TO THE ADMIRALTY JANY 1 1851 Engraved by Charles Malby' with brass meridian ring. The wooden horizon with engraved paper ring raised on an elegant mahogany library stand with three inswept feet with inlaid satin wood parquetry detail, terminating in brass-capped castors - 42in. (106,7 cm) high
15,000 - 18,000 — 15,535
30 - A 8-inch (20,3 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'ERDGLOBUS gezeichnet von H. KIEPERT BERLIN Verlag von Dietrich Reimer. 1869. Stich v. J. Sulzer Druck v. F. Barth', with brass meridian ring and wooden horizon covered with steel engraved paper. The wooden stand with four curved quadrant supports to the octagonal horizon raised on a turned pillar with three shaped legs united by a thin concave triform stretcher, a glazed compass case at the centre - 19in. (48,2 cm) high
4,000 - 5,000 — -----
31 - A 16-inch (40,7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, the mahogany horizon with hand-coloured paper bearing the notes 'IMPROVED GLOBE, BOSTON, MANUFCTURED BY GILMAN JOSLIN CORRECTED TO 1870' and 'Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1852 by Charles Copley, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York'. The sphere with brass meridian ring and wooden horizon raised on a four foliate cast-iron quadrant supports to a foliate-decorated tulip-shaped column with three hipped inswept legs and tulip-shaped feet - 42in. (106,7 cm) high
10,000 - 15,000 — -----
32 - A 25-inch (63,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'NEWTON'S NEW TERRESTRIAL GLOBE COMPILED FROM THE MOST RECENT AUTHENTIC SURVEYS OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN NAVIGATORS AND TRAVELLERS LONDON Published March 25th 1874. Manufactured by NEWTON AND SON 66, Chancery Lane. Davies […] NEWTON & CO. 3 Fleet Street', heavy stamped brass meridian ring on a heavy walnut library stand, the horizon supported on four curved and cannellated quadrant supports to a short central pillar with three heavy scroll-topped inswept legs terminating in lion's-paw feet with castors, a glazed compass held between them on turned cross stretchers, the engraved paper signed NEWTON & co Fleet Street LONDON' - 53 ¼ in. (135,2 cm) high
50,000 - 60,000 — 53,775
33 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) terrestrial globe, signed 'MALBY'S TERRESTRIAL GLOBE; Compiled from the latest & MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES, Including all the recent Geographical Discoveries. EDWARD STANFORD; GEOGRAPHICAL PUBLISHER &c., 55, CHARING CROSS, LONDON. 1877.', brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with printed and hand-coloured paper ring raised on four curved and cannellated quadrants supports to a turned central column with brass meridian support with screw clamp, on three cabriole legs terminating in pad feet - 25 in. (63,5 cm) high
8,000 - 12,000 — 9,560
34 - A pair of 13-inch (33 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE PAR DELAMARCHE E. BERTAUX EDITEUR 25, Rue Serpente. PARIS', the celestial 'DELAMARCHE, Rue Serpente, 25 PARIS.' Both spheres with brass meridian ring, the wooden horizon with printed paper raised on four curved quadrant supports to a central turned and carved column with three inswept legs terminating in lion's paw and ball feet - 27 ¾ in. (70,5 cm) high
10,000 - 15,000 — 9,560
35 - A pair on 12 ½-inch (31,9 cm) diameter globes, c. 1895, the terrestrial signed ' ERDKUGEL (GLOBUS) Druck und Verlag von J. FELKL & SOHN Lehrmittel-Fabrik in ROSTOK bei PRAG', the celestial 'HIMMELSGLOBUS Entworfen und herausgegeben von J. FELKL & SOHN Roztok-Prag', both spheres with brass meridian rings, the celestial with a brass quadrant of altitude, the dodecahedral horizon with chromolithographed paper ring raised on four shaped quadrant supports to a turned central pillar with three inswept legs, a brass-cased and glazed compass held on brass supports between the legs - 29 in. (73,7 cm) high
10,000 - 15,000 — 9,560
36 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter Mars globe, signed 'Globe Geographique de la Planète MARS d'après CAMILLE FLAMMARION par E. Antoniadi E. Bertaux, Editeur, Paris.' On a simple turned and ebonised wooden column and circular plinth base - 12 ¼ in. (31 cm) high
2,500 - 3,000 — 2,390

CHRISTIE'S South Kensington - 4 December 2002

62 - Edward Luther STEVENSON, Terrestrial And Celestial Globes Their History And Construction Including A Consideration Of Their Value As Aids In The Study Of Geography And Astronomy, New Haven: The Hispanic Society of America, 1921, 2 volumes, 8°, first edition, one of 1000 copies
200-300 — 235
64 - A pair of 2 ¾-inch (7 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'A New GLOBE of the EARTH by N. Lane' and '1776 Prockter fe.', the celestial with no makers cartouche. Both spheres with brass hour ring as a cap at the North Pole and brass meridian ring, in an oak-stand, the horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper ring raised on four baluster turned legs united by turned cross stretchers - 4 ½ in. (11,4 cm) high
8,000 - 10,000 — 7,050
65 - A 2 ¾-inch (7 cm) pocket globe [after Hermann MOLL]; London, late 18th century. The terrestrial signed 'A Correct GLOBE with the new Discoveries' (Cooks voyage is marked with '1760') and contained in the original fishskin-covered spherical case, the interior laid with celestial gores, signed 'A Correct Globe with y.e New Cons:tellations of D.r Halley &c.'
(areas of fishskin cracking)
1,800-2,00 — -----
67 - A pair of 2 3/4-inch (7 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'DARTON & C.o 55 Gracechurch Street LONDON 1809', the celestial 'A Correct Globe with y.e New Cons:tellations of D.r Halley &c.' [same label as lot 65 before]. Both spheres with brass meridian ring in an ivory stand, the stamped horizon raised on four baluster turned legs united by cross stretchers - 4 ½ in. (11,5 cm) high
3,500-4,500 — 4112
70 - A 5-inch (12,7 cm) terrestrial globe signed 'MPS.', French text, contained in a circular cardboard box, the lid with an applied hand-coloured engraved paper with foliate border and a picture of a family at study, with the remains of a title 'DIE ERDE …' (some loss and wear) - 5 ¾ inch (14,6 cm) high [French globe in a German box]
1,800 - 2,000 — 1,880
78 - A mid-18th Century paper and pasteboard Ptolemaic armillary sphere, the 1 ½ inch (3,8 cm) diameter terrestrial globe with a cartouche in the northern Pacific 'GLOBE TERREST. 1744', in the southern pacific the note 'par Hardy'. The meridian ring signed 'Se monte et se vend chés Desnos rue St Jacque S.t Severin AParis 1757' and 'Monte Par l'Auteur'. The sphere with horizon ring and four quadrants raised on an ebonised and baluster turned wooden column and circular plinth base - 16 in. (40,7 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 — 4,465
80 - A paper and pasteboard heliocentric armillary sphere, unsigned, the gilt-painted plaster Sun ball at the centre surrounded by paper-covered pasteboard rings for the planets from mercury to Saturn, the 1-inch (2,5 cm) diameter Earth ball showing the track of Cook's 1773 voyage, surrounded by a small card Moon disc on a wire arm. The sphere raised on a turned ebonised column and circular plinth base - 15 ½ in. (42 cm)
3,000 - 4,000 — -----
85 - A 24-inch [] (61 cm) diameter celestial globe by Vincenzo CORONELLI - see lot 179, auction 2 July 2002
12,000 - 15,000 — 12,925
86 - A 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter celestial globe, Swedish, late 18th century, signed 'HIMMELS GLOB C. Akrell', with stamped brass meridian ring, ebonised horizon with hand-coloured paper ring, raised on four turned mahogany legs united by a concave triform platform with a turned meridian support - 17 ½ in (44,5 cm) high
[the wooden meridian support has been restored - but: the papered horizon ring on the stand must be equal with the horizon (equator) on the sphere!!!]
4,000 - 5,000 — -----
87 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe by J. & W. CARY, London 1816, with brass meridian ring, on a mahogany stand, the engraved paper horizon ring raised on four curved quadrant supports to a turned central column with brass meridian support and three cabriole legs terminating in pad feet - 24 ¼ in. (61,6 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 — -----
87A - A 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, Swedish, signed 'JORDGLOB Utgifven 1817', with brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper raised on four curved mahogany quadrant supports, each with square section at the top with a gilt rosette, to a baluster turned fruitwood column with three inswept legs - 21 in. (53,4 cm) high
5,000 - 6,000 — -----
88 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, English, dated 1826 by J. &. W. NEWTON, London, both spheres with brass meridian ring, the hand-coloured engraved paper horizon ring raised on three ebonised and baluster turned legs united by cross stretchers - 18 ½ in. (47 cm) high
6,000 - 8,000 — 8,225
89 - A pair of 7 ½-inch (19 cm) diameter inflatable globes, each sphere made from untanned calfskin with an inner bladder of (later) rubber, inflatable via a metal valve at the North Pole, the terrestrial signed 'BREVET D'INVENTION GLOBE TERRESTRE dressé PAR AMBROISE TARDIEU d'après l'invention de A. WEINLING ET CIE 1831 A STRASBOURG chez Marin et Schmidt', the celestial 'Brevet d'Invention. GLOBE CÉLESTE Position des étoiles fixes pour l'année 1840 dressé par SPIES d'après l'invention de WEINLING & CIE Lith. De Simon P. et F. A Strasbourg chez Marin & Schmidt', both spheres with metal catch securing the north polar axis pin to the meridian, with iron pointer for the (missing) hour ring, meridian with printed paper ring, the four horizon quadrant supports the horizon ring and raised on a baluster turned fruitwood column and circular plinth base - 20 in. (50,8 cm) high
5,000 - 8,000 — -----
90 - A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'DELAMARCHE, Rue Serpente, 25 PARIS', with stamped brass meridian half circle raised on a small turned brass support to a turned and ebonised wooden column - 23 ¾ in. (60,3 cm) high
2,000 - 2,500 — -----
91 - A 18-inch (45,7 cm) diameter celestial globe, dated 1843, by MALBY & Co, London, with stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper ring raised on three curved and cannellated quadrant supports to a central hexagonal-section column with three inswept legs terminating in lion's paw-feet - 38 in. (96,5 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 — -----
92 - A 9 ½-inch (24 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, dated 1847, by Charles DIEN, with an unengraved brass meridian ring and a stamped white metal horizon ring, raised on ebonised semi-circular iron support to a turned brass fixture a top a turned and ebonised wooden column and plinth base - 20 in. (50,8 cm) high
2,500 - 3,000 — -----
93 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, dated 185.(?), by CARY, London, with brass meridian ring, wooden horizon with hand-coloured paper horizon ring, raised on four curved mahogany quadrant supports to a turned central column with three inswept legs, the glazed mahogany compass case held between them - 24 ¼ in. (61,6 cm) high
7,000 - 9,000 — -----
94 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, Swedish, signed 'JORDGLOB Uitgifven År 1866', with an unengraved brass meridian half-circle raised on a simple turned and ebonised wooden column and circular plinth base - 11 3/45in. (29,8 cm) high
1,500 - 2,000 — -----
95 - A 15-inch (38,1^cm) diameter terrestrial globe, French, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE NAUD-EVRARD. EDITEUR 3, Rue Geoffroy-Marie. 3 PARIS Réduction du grand modèle de CH. LAROCHETTE ET L.BONNEFONT. Médaille d'Argent à l'Exposition Universelle de 1867 Imp. Lemercier et C.ie Schmidt Sc.' With a brass ball finial, raised on a baluster turned ebonised wooden column and circular stepped plinth base - 24in. (61 cm) high
1,800 - 2,200 — -----
96 - A pair of 13-inch (33 cm) diameter globes, late 19th century, the terrestrial signed 'A. N. LEBEGUE ET C.IE IMPRIMEURS-ÈDITEURS 46, Rue de la Madeleine. BRUXELLES', the celestial 'GLOBE CÉLESTE P. MAES, éditeur 98, boulevard Anspach, 98 BRUXELLES', both spheres with a pierced and scroll-shaped iron finial, raised on a short cast-iron arm and foliate-decorated tripod stand with three raised mustachoied faces and legs terminating in lion's paw feet - 23 ½ in. (59,7 cm) high
3,000 - 4,000 — -----
97 - A 15-inch (38,1 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, English, dated 1836, by G. & J. CARY, London, with brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper ring, raised on four curved quadrant supports to a baluster turned column with three inswept legs terminating in castors, the glazed compass box held on cross-stretchers between - 40 in. (101,6 cm) high — -----
10,000 - 12,000
98 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe, English, recalculated for the year 1840 by W. NEWTON & SON, London, with brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon ring with engraved paper ring, raised on three turned, reeded and tapering legs united by inswept cross stretchers to a turned meridian support, also with a turned and glazed compass box, the three legs terminating in castors - 36 ¾ in. (93,4 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 — -----
99 - A 18-inch (45,7 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, English, signed 'A TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, Compiled from the latest & MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES; INCLUDING ALL THE RECENT Geographical Discoveries, PUBLISHED BY J. WYLD, Charing Cross East., NEXT DOOR TO THE POST OFFICE, LONDON. 1854' raised with brass meridian and wooden horizon ring on four curved quadrant supports to a baluster turned column with three inswept legs terminating in castors - 42 ½ in. (108 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 — -----
100 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, English, signed 'CRUCHLEY'S NEW TERRESTRIAL GLOBE From the most recent Authorities EXHIBITING THE DISCOVERIES IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA; NORTH POLE, And the new Settlements & Divisions of AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, CALIFORNIA, TEXAS & C. LONDON G: F: CRUCHLEY, MAPSELLER, GLOBEMAKER & PUBLISHER. 81, FLEET STREET' and an overlaid cartouche '1868', with brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with hand-coloured engraved paper ring signed 'W. Harris 1835', raised on four quadrant supports to a tall baluster turned column with three hipped and inswept legs terminating in scroll feet - 43in. (109,2 cm) high
7,000 - 9,000 — -----

SOTHEBY'S Olympia 16 December 2002

267 - A 12-inch terrestrial globe, English, third quarter 19th century, signed 'MALBY'S terrestrial globe compiled from the latest & most authentic sources including all the recent Geographical Discoveries Edward Stanford Geographical Publishers, 6 Charing Cross London' with brass meridian ring, printed paper applied to the horizon ring, supported on three turned baluster mahogany legs with cross stretchers, height 50 cm
1,000 - 1,500 — 4,112
268 - A 5 ¼ -inch celestial globe, French, first quarter 19th century, unsigned, later brass meridian ring and polar calotte, the horizon ring supported by four turned baluster columns with four oak stretchers united in the centre, supported on four bun feet, height 23 cm
3,000 - 4,000 — -----
269 - A 6-inch terrestrial globe, German, second quarter 19th century, signed 'Neuer ERDGLOBUS nach den besten Hulfs mitteln gestochen und verfertigt von G. F. Haug, Hof Mechanicus in Stuttgart 1833', later brass meridian ring and hour ring, fitted with an octagonal horizon ring, raised on an ebonised stand with four quadrant arc supports central column and four splayed legs, height 42 cm
3,000 - 4,000 — -----

 

 

 

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