NEWS ONLINE 2002
- Editorial, Jan Mokre.
- Photos anniversary celebration
- For Fifty Years: The International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes, Peter E. Allmayer-Beck.
- Facets of a World Model, Wolfgang Scharfe.
- The Globe between Fact and Fiction, Elly Dekker.
- Report on the General Assembly 2001+2002.
- Xth International Symposium Nuremberg 2002.
- Globe Hunt in the Internet, Andreas Riedl.
- Globemania, Murray Hudson.
- The conservation of globes: Protecting Heaven and Earth, Sylvia Sumira.
- Around the globe.
- New Publications on Globes.
- In Memoriam.
- Globes at auctions, Heide Wohlschläger.
This year, we are presenting the second number of NEWS, the International Coronelli Society bulletin. We were very pleased about the many positive reactions we received about the first issue published in 2001, and we took them as confirmation that we were moving in the right direction with our efforts to encourage closer contacts between the Board and our members. Particularly encouraging was our members' response to the bilingual publication of all contributions.
Continuing in the same spirit, we also introduced a major change to our scientific journal, DER GLOBUSFREUND, effective from 2002. In recent years, contributions to this publication had with increasing frequency appeared both in German and English, and the growing volume had pushed up expenses for printing, paper and postage. Therefore, starting in 2002, the journal of the International Coronelli Society, edited by Johannes Dörflinger, will be brought out in two separate volumes with the same content, one in German, the other one in English, the English?language volume under the title GLOBE STUDIES. The Journal of the International Coronelli Society. We are awaiting the reactions of our members and subscribers with great interest.
In the memorable year 2002 the International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes also had the pleasure of celebrating two anniversaries: 50 years had passed since the Society's foundation, and for the 10th time an International Symposium on Globe Studies was held.
The "Coronelli-World League of Friends of the Globe" (Societas Corelliana Amicorum Globorum) was officially founded on 11 June 1952. In memory of this event we organised a festive gathering on exactly that day, 50 years after the constituent general assembly. The celebration took place in the Austrian National Library's baroque state hall. More than 200 guests honoured the invitation which the President and Board of our Society had extended to all members, as well as to leading representatives of Austrian scientific, cultural and political institutions.
In this second issue of NEWS, we publish the welcome address by our President, Peter E. Allmayer-Beck, as well as the speeches by Univ. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Scharfe (Freie Universität Berlin, Geographic Sciences) and by Dr. Elly Decker, leading expert in globe studies, together with some photographs taken of the festive gathering. We hope that all those who unfortunately could not come to Vienna will thus get an impression of the official part of this event. After the commemorative speeches, a reception with refreshments took place in other rooms also kindly provided by the Austrian National Library, which thus acknowledged its close ties with the study of globes, apart from housing both the unique globe museum and the office of the Coronelli Society. The reception, kindly sponsored by several benefactors, continued until 11 pm.
Several guests expressed their great appreciation of both parts of the celebration, commenting favourably on the content of the speeches given, on organisation, the quality of the refreshments offered, and also on the generally pleasant atmosphere of the evening. Many parted with the words: "See you in Nuremberg!", referring to the Xth International Symposium on the study of globes, our second commemorative event this year.
Accordingly, from 23rd to 25th September 2002, globe connoisseurs, scientists, collectors, traders, restorers as well as many people simply interested in globes gathered in Nuremberg in order to get acquainted with the latest research results and to establish or renew personal contacts. For a report on the Symposium, please turn to page ·· of this issue. We thank the main sponsor of the Symposium, Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, for its generous support in preparing for and organising the meeting, as well as the Museum für Kommunikation Nuremberg for offering its premises and for practical assistance during the meeting. We are also grateful to Stadtmuseum Fembohaus and Germanisches Nationalmuseum for their hospitality. The very interesting lectures delivered at the Xth International Symposium on the Study of Globes in Nuremberg, 2002, will be published in the next issue of DER GLOBUSFREUND and GLOBE STUDIES, respectively.
Due to our Society's more conspicuous media presence and our special information efforts at history of geography congresses and meetings of map collectors, we were able to welcome 25 new members among our ranks in 2001. By the end of August 2002, another 23 persons had joined the Coronelli Society. We are very pleased about this positive development of our membership and we hope to succeed in attracting the attention further globe connoisseurs also in the future.
Thanks to the efforts of our Vice President, Peter van der Krogt, many parts of our Internet homepage were updated (http://www.coronelli.org) and, recently, online access to the material published in NEWS was installed. Also, persons interested in joining our Society may register online via our homepage.
This second issue of NEWS contains contributions on our standard topics, information on interesting details in the "Around the Globe" column, as well as a report on the results of important auctions held.
I would like to thank all contributors to this issue and take the opportunity to renew our appeal to all our members and, indeed, to all globe lovers, to send us interesting news items and information on the world of the globe, so they can be propagated by NEWS and also be preserved this way.
Photos anniversary celebration / Photos Jubiläumsfeier
Anniversary celebration in the State Hall of the Austrian National Library.
The Speakers: Wolfgang Scharfe, Elly Dekker, Peter E. Allmayer-Beck.
For Fifty Years: The International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes
Peter E. Allmayer-Beck
Ladies and Gentlemen,
may I welcome you warmly on behalf of the Board of the International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes and thank you for attending this festive occasion in such large numbers. My greetings also go to the members of our Society in 24 countries who, unfortunately, are not with us today.
Precisely fifty years ago, on 11 June 1952, the "Coronelli-World League of Friends of the Globe" (Societas Corelliana Amicorum Globorum) was founded in Vienna. The founding fathers - among them, incidentally, my own father, Dr. Max Vladimir Allmayer-Beck - elected the private scholar Dipl. Ing. Robert Haardt, an indefatigable globe researcher and propagator of the scientific investigation of historical but also of modern globes, as the Society's first president.
The Society's aims at that time were formulated as follows:
- Stimulation of interest in the truthful representation of this world,
- Support for the work carried out by the globe museum in Vienna, particularly with respect to establishing a world list of old globes,
- Support for new production methods and
- Provision of advice in the case of purchase or sale of old globes.
In keeping with the nature of the artefact "globe", openness towards the world and an international outlook have characterised the Society's activities from its earliest days. "Not focusing on only one country, nor just on one's own country, (...) but making ever larger numbers of people aware of an image of the world as a whole" would contribute to "the hoped for and desired unity of the world". [Walter Schneefuß, "Weltbund", in: Der Globusfreund 1 (1952), p. 31].
The Society's name and official aims were modified several times during its fifty-year history. Today, it is no longer called World League, but "International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes": yet, openness towards the world and an international outlook have always been and will, of course, continue to be fundamental to our work.
We are gathering today to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Society's founding. The place of this meeting could not be more appropriate: next to us, in the central oval crossing of the Austrian National Library's festive hall, four splendid, baroque globes are on display, created by our Society's name-giver, the Venetian Minorite priest, encyclopaedic scholar and globe-maker Vincenzo Coronelli.
Fifty years do not seem to be a long span of time when one is dealing with apparently timeless, universal objects like globes. But this impression is deceitful: the past fifty years of institutionalised, inter-disciplinary work on terrestrial and celestial globes, globes of the moon and the planets, on armillary spheres, telluria and planetaria, make us one of the oldest societies in the world dedicated to history of cartography.
During those 50 years, the study of the artefact "globe" - initiated in Vienna - has passed through numerous remarkable stages. Permit me to briefly trace the major ones we have witnessed during the past half of a century.
Stimulated by Edward Luther Stevenson's internationally recognised work on the history and construction of terrestrial and celestial globes, which had appeared in the United States in 1921, Eugen Oberhummer, professor of geography at the University of Vienna, published a study in 1922 on old globes located in Vienna. During the 1930s, the private scholar Robert Haardt developed a new type of globe which became known as "cradle globe". Haardt indefatigably tried to stimulate interest in the globe through numerous publications and at several international congresses, advocating the compilation of an international stock list of globes and the creation of a globe museum in Vienna. In the 1940s, since no public funds could be procured for this purpose, Haardt took a first step and opened a private globe museum in his home in the fourth district of Vienna, where several exhibitions were held.
In 1953 a publicly funded globe museum was officially founded at last. Attached to the Austrian National Library's map department, the globe museum has remained the only museum of its kind in the world. Vienna thus houses the only institution specifically dedicated to the purchase, study and public presentation of this special group of objects. The museum's stock of old globes constitutes the second most important collection of this type in the world. Among the personalities known for their outstanding efforts to promote the public presentation of globes I would like to name the former director of the map department, Dr. Rudolf Kinauer, active during the 1950s, and his successor, Dr. Franz Wawrik, who redesigned the exhibition and supervised the museum's move to new exhibition rooms in the 1980s.
As I said, the Coronelli-World League of Friends of the Globe was founded in Vienna, in 1952. Its first president, Robert Haardt, to whom I have paid tribute already, determined the society's development until his death. He was succeeded by Dr. Ernst Bernleithner, lecturer in geography at the University of Vienna, who was in charge of the society for 16 years. In 1978, Prof. Rudolf Schmidt, the society's present honorary president and my own predecessor, took over the presidency. We gratefully recall Rudolf Schmidt's unceasing efforts during 22 years, notably the society's resolute internationalisation and, above all, its opening-up to the general public and move beyond the confines of scholarly circles.
One aspect of globology affecting the International Coronelli Society's development during the past 50 years has been the enormously risen interest in research on globes and globe-like instruments.
There had been globe research in Vienna since the 1880s, mainly at the university. Important advances were due to Günter Schilder, born in Vienna, who received a call to Utrecht, in the Netherlands, for a professorship in history of cartography. He established this field, history of cartography, as a major research area there. Today we take great pleasure in the fact that one of Schilder's former students, Peter van der Krogt, internationally famous for his important contributions to globe research, is acting as our society's second vice-president.
During the past 50 years, several impressive globe collections have been assembled by private persons in Vienna. The Schmidt collection, which has won international fame, is one of them. But, Rudolf Schmidt is much more than a collector: he has repeatedly made his important collection accessible to the public through exhibitions, both in Austria and abroad, and he supports the Austrian National Library's globe museum by allowing it to keep some of his collection's most precious objects on permanent loan.
I have reached the end of my brief historical review of the Coronelli Society's fifty-year history. Allow me to also add a few words on its present and future:
The International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes is a unique centre of globe research. According to its statutes, it is dedicated to "furthering and encouraging research on the globe as a specific form of cartography, of tracing the globe's history and role in the socio-cultural context". For this purpose, the Coronelli Society collects and records any kind of information relevant to globology and tries to facilitate the exchange of information among its members.
The members of our society are globe collectors, globe researchers, museum curators, globe restoration experts, globe traders, but also institutions owning globes and libraries.
The Coronelli Society encourages scientific research by regularly organising symposia. In September this year, the Xth International Symposium for the Study of Globes will take place at Nuremberg, Germany.
The results of globe research are presented to the public in a scientific journal of globology, the only publication of this kind world-wide. So far, 50 volumes of this journal, entitled Der Globusfreund, have appeared. From the year 2002, the society will also publish an English version, entitled Globe Studies. In order to intensify contacts with and among the society's members, and also to make news about the world of the globe more readily available, the society initiated another regular publication last year, Coronelli-Society NEWS.
As regards the future, continuing steadily its achievements during the past 50 years, the society intends to intensify its efforts to become better known by the general public.
We would like to transmit to as many people as possible some of the fascination one may experience when getting acquainted with globes. Perhaps more insistently than we have done in the past, we are appealing for support of our work and our publications and we are calling upon the generosity of new sponsors and benefactors.
In closing, I would like to warmly thank all personalities and institutions who, through their non-bureaucratic and spontaneous support, substantially contributed to enabling the society to celebrate its anniversary in such a magnificent way. We thank Dr. Johanna Rachinger, Director General of the Austrian National Library, for lending us the National Library's premises for this event, and we are grateful to the City of Vienna Councillor for Cultural and Scientific Affairs, Dr. Andreas Mailath-Pokorny; to the Chairman of the Board, Österreichische Volksbanken AG, Mr. Manfred Kunert; to Dkfm. Herbert Liaunig, industrialist; to Mag. Manfred Mautner Markhof, OBI Österreich; to the Austrian National Bank; to Dr. Willi Gorton, Glücksstelle Hohe Brücke; and to design studio Sekulic & Niemetz.
I should also like to thank Mag. Jan Mokre, director of the map department and of the globe museum, as well as secretary general of the Coronelli Society; and Ms. Uli Gutsch, who together contributed much of their spare time to organise today's festive occasion.
Thank you for your attention.
Facets of a World Model
The many ways of approaching the sphere, the globe, the terrestrial or celestial globe, or even the armillary sphere go far beyond the scope of this gala evening. I shall therefore take the liberty of attempting a topic close to the heart of an academic representative of both modern and historical cartography: Let us first consider the "map", the conceptual focus of cartography, in comparison with the globe this evening's object of our intellectual pleasure. Our aim will be to illustrate the character of maps as well as of globes and spheres, which are the focal points of globography.
This comparison is intended to show us the globe as most of the students of Earth Sciences get to know it: via the definition of a "map". The seven general characteristics of a "map" are:
- scale reduction
- inclusion of explanatory text
- planimetric representation.
Yet the area depicted by a map is - in a strictly mathematical and geometrical sense - merely a relatively small portion of one of the three-dimensional bodies in space: either the Earth, another planet, a moon, maybe in the near future a planetoid or one of the fixed stars.
Here it should be pointed out that - again in a strict sense - not all maps of the Earth, such as planispheres, nor even maps of larger portions of a cosmic body feature all seven map characteristics. Generally speaking, these large-space maps show no homogeneous scale reduction in comparison with the original surface of the globe. Distortions of angle and area make this obvious to map users. The smaller the area depicted by a map, the easier it is to disregard these distortions.
However, in a wider sense, if even just one of these characteristics is absent - for example, when the cartographic mode of representation is not flat but round (a globe, for instance) - this deviation from map criteria is pejoratively termed kartenverwandt or kartenähnlich in German ("map-related" or "map-like") and hence banned to the bottom of the general map hierarchy. By the way, this tradition of separating maps from non-map cartographic representations has academic roots in Vienna. Other forms of cartographic representation apart from the globe have also met the fate of being classified as map-related: for example, profiles, panoramas, bird's-eye views, block diagrams, topograms, and anamorphoses.
This comparison documents the cartographic system of concepts during the second half of the 20th century, when maps and the majority of non-map cartographic representations morphed into utilitarian mass-produced articles controlled by economic constraints. For many forms of paper maps - and, in the meantime, an alarmingly high percentage of Internet maps too - correspond in price, content, type of representation and life span to what is allegedly the spirit of the times of infotainment and throwaway culture. From the 1960s to the present day, the emergent science of cartography has maintained this conceptual system and expanded it to cover the digital domain.
However, with equal - or even much greater - justification, both amateur globe connoisseurs and academic globe researchers can declare the globe to be the centre of all spatial modes of depicting cosmic bodies and the universe. According to this point of view, the "map" would then become a peripheral object of world models because it lacks the decisive characteristics of all globe-shaped world models.
However, as a matter of principle I wish to go clearly beyond this conceptual approach and call for globography as the independent science of globes as world models to be accepted as a neighbouring discipline and equal partner of cartography, rather than merely part of it. Let me explain why:
In a strict sense, maps as focal points of cartography and globes as their counterparts in globography share the same characteristics and basic designs in the categories of
- sign coding
- explanatory text and
- planimetric representation.
So, the superordinate concept of "spatial models" may be applied to both. Because their properties and parameters are reduced in comparison with the originals, models are always limited to a specific volume of information. Despite these reductions, models enable their users to solve problems that are otherwise difficult or impossible to solve only by reference to the originals.
However, as well as these similarities between globes and maps, there are also contrasts between them. In the categories of
- scale reduction
- generalisation and
globes and maps show distinct, sometimes even fundamental, differences. This is the basis for their different uses.
In the definition of a map it was pointed out that in most cases a map sheet is only a relatively small, two-dimensional portion of a three-dimensional body in the universe, and it is easier to ignore distortions of angle and area the smaller the area represented on a map. In this way, problems are mainly solved by map-users' locating elements, or groups of elements, of a familiar area on the map or using familiar areas to discover new ones. This type of map use presupposes scales that allow a sufficient number of topographic or thematic details to be represented on the map in the form of easily legible, decodable signs. In other words, this involves scales larger than about 1 : 1 million and influences selection processes during generalisation.
Methods of map use such as
- map reading
- map analysis and
- map interpretation
largely depend on these pre-conditions or require even much larger scales, i.e. even less generalisation. In the case of terrestrial globes, the user is not explicitly told the extent of scale reduction. This information is available via the diameter of the globe. Hence, a non-professional is not able to compare the scale and degree of generalisation of terrestrial globes with the corresponding values for maps or non-map cartographic representations. In this context, globography has already found a new terminology which I shall translate with the help of some examples.
If we want to represent the earth as a terrestrial globe on a scale of 1 : 1 million, i.e. a size that would be just about suitable for some scientific and military purposes, the diameter of the globe would be 12.74 metres. Just to remind ourselves: Vincenzo Coronelli's large globes have diameters of 1.1. m (corresponding to a scale of 1 : 11.6 million) and 3.84 m (corresponding to 1 : 3.3 million), respectively. By contrast, about 80-90% of the terrestrial globes contained in collections are less than 41 cm in diameter. The corresponding scales are then about 1 : 31 million or smaller. Maps on these scales are generally found in school atlases of geography and show entire continents and larger parts of the oceans. World maps in these atlases have average scales between 1 : 60 and 1 : 90 million, the corresponding terrestrial globes are about 20 cm or less in diameter. These numerical comparisons illustrate very clearly that potential uses of terrestrial globes are generally not comparable at all with those of maps in the sense given above.
The objects of spatial communication, which mapmakers express by single dots, lines and areas and their overall patterns, also occur on terrestrial globes. However, on the majority of terrestrial globes these signs and patterns are considered secondary compared with continents and large features such as rivers, mountains, or sometimes urban agglomerations. By contrast, terrestrial globes generally give priority to features of world-wide or at least continental dimensions and significance as objects of spatial communication. This alone would not distinguish the terrestrial globe from small-scale maps or non-map cartographic representations that show the entire earth with or without repeating marginal areas. In the case of the map, two-dimensionality - i.e. the loss of the directly represented third dimension - is an essential condition for numerous methods of map use and also makes sense in the case of the most widely used map scales. By contrast, the terrestrial globe, with its geometrical macroform of a "sphere", possesses the specific analogous characteristic of its original model: the "terrestrial body". The similarly three-dimensional "relief" generally does not compete with the terrestrial globe because relief is generally represented topographically on a large- or medium-scale map (1 : 25,000 or 1 : 300,000) and hence depicts geometrical "microforms" in relation to the Earth as a whole.
Summing up the comparison between terrestrial globes and maps, we perceive the terrestrial globe as a means of communication that, in analogy to the shape and surface of the earth - i.e. in three dimensions - presents large-space, earth-related features according to their location, size and dynamics. A direct objective for the globe user is the rapid and precise recognition of three-dimensional large-space spatial relationships that are not cognitively recognisable to the map user (or only after considerable processes of abstraction). On the other hand, only the globe - whether terrestrial or celestial - is able to provide its user with a rapid understanding of features connected with the position of the Earth in the solar system or in the cosmos. To name a few examples: the rotation of the firmament, the origin of night and day - the rotation of the Earth - the rising and setting of stars - time differences and time zones - the seasons - the obliquity of the ecliptic.
These results are formulated in the language of the information and communication science of cartography at the turn of the 20th to the 21st century. Yet they are not sufficient to explain the significance of the globe in general and especially its historical dimension. For the information and communication level is not the only level at which the globe plays a major role as a cosmic body and a world model.
1. The sphericity of the globe in all its aspects not only embodies, but was and is understood as a unit, an entity in itself, for example in contrast to the many map sheets that we encounter as mostly small, non-independent particles of planetary surfaces. In addition, every globe presents an unending but limited surface, yet it lacks that edge, that boundary to the spatial nirvana of imperfection, that may be considered to be prototypical of maps - irrespective of which planet they represent. Furthermore, sphericity, spherical surface and spherical volume are in an optimal three-dimensional mathematical relation to each other: only in this shape does a minimum surface encompass a maximum content. In a way, this relation is continued in the transition from three-dimensional to two-dimensional space in the sense that, on the one hand, the circular periphery of an orthodrome surrounds a maximum circular space; on the other hand, as the shortest path between two points on a sphere, it possesses the same function as a straight line in the plane.
2. The use of the term "World Model" in the title of my address on this festive occasion is intended to emphasise that there has been a transformation not only of models of the solid "worlds" - e.g. the planets and their moons in our solar system - but also of models of the entire cosmos such as celestial globes , and armillary spheres as three-dimensional globe-like compositions of different world systems (both geocentric and heliocentric). This statement may initially seem banal to contemporaries of the 21st century, standing as they do at the end of over ten millennia of cumulative, traditional and globalise knowledge.
3. However, a glance at the past quickly shows that the spherical world model is not the only (and very probably not the first) model to emerge from the myths of human belief and the rational spirit of human observation and analysis. Initially, the spherical model of the earth and cosmos competed with other- largely two-dimensional - views of the world, many of which have survived only in fragments or vague notions.
4. One of the early conceptions of the world and world models is that associated with Nut, the Egyptian goddess who gave birth to several deities. She overarches the earth, her hands and feet touching the ground. Every evening she consumes the sun which wanders through her body at night and is born anew in the morning. All the other stars also count as her children. Her arched body bears the souls of the dead to heaven. This picture of the goddess Nut was shown on coffins since the New Kingdom (about 1500 BC) and only in two dimensions, the Egyptian convention of representing space. It depicts an anthropomorphic link between the earth and the universe. Many cultures may have had similar ways of attempting to explain mythological and rational ideas.
A Babylonian clay tablet has survived from the sixth century BC It depicts the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers encircled by a ring with seven outward points. The ring is the mythological Bitter River, possibly comparable with the Greek Okeanos, and its points are "districts". They represent the transition to the "Heavenly Ocean" with its stars. At this time already, the stars were being depicted either as they are still shown today or assembled in groups bearing the names of animals. This clay tablet is an important graphic and cartographic illustration of the wealth of ideas and knowledge about mythology and astrology in Mesopotamian culture.
Both the Egyptian and Mesopotamian visions of the world used the circle rather than the sphere to encompass the human universe. Again in the sixth century BC, the pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximander of Miletus was said to have proposed several hypotheses including:
- that the earth is cylindrical in shape, its height being one-third its width,
- that the sun wheel is 27 times wider, the moon wheel 18 times wider, and the firmament 9 times wider than the earth.
However, in the 5th and 4th century BC it was Pythagoras of Samos and his school - especially Archytras of Tarentum -who first taught that both the earth and the stars were spherical in shape. A celestial globe originally made in the 3rd century BC is preserved as a copy dating to the 1st/2nd century AD; it is known as the Farnese Atlas and is now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli.
A terrestrial globe, some three metres in diameter, from the 2nd century BC has been attributed to Crates of Mallus at Pergamum. It is said to have shown four symmetrical regions of life on earth, including the ecumene. This globe is supposed to be the origin of the Imperial orb in the Middle Ages.
The "Tabula Peutingeriana", an "itinerarium pictum" with the topography of the 4th century AD may be considered a world model of antiquity. (It has been preserved as a copy dating to the 12th/early 13th century.) However, it has no recognisable mythological basis; rather it seems close to an early cartographic depiction of the known earth.
Early mediaeval views of the world were strongly coloured by the spatial information contained in the Bible. One such view was that of Kosmas Indikopleustes (the traveller to India) who lived in Alexandria in the 6th century AD. He opposed both the works of Ptolemy and all conceptions of a spherical earth and sky. This world model is rectangular and surrounded by the Okeanos; it contains paradise in the east and is vaulted by a two-storey tabernacle.
Let us end this selection of competitors to the spherical universe with a model unaffected by the Old World: the universe of the Ancient Mexicans, a 15th/16th century example contained in the Codex FŽjev‡ry-Mayer. It shows several regularly ordered, myth-based pictures of deities facing the four main directions. As with the world view of Kosmas Indikopleustes, it indicates no affinities with views of the world as a sphere.
Nevertheless, the spherical shape - so attractive in mathematical and geometrical terms - had already been incorporated in antiquity's depictions of the earth and the heavens. The concrete representation of celestial globes in the ancient world surely owed more to a cognitive analogy with the visible sky and its interpretation as a solid geometrical arch than to the spherical geospatial hypothesis of a Crates of Mallus. However, the fascinating effect of spherical geometry in the representation of heaven and earth is confirmed by the fact that both Behaim and Waldseemüller used segments of a globe to present their knowledge and convictions: the former in 1492, before it was known that a New World had been discovered, the latter in 1507 before Magellan had sailed round the world. A hundred years later, the invention of the telescope was to speed the breakthrough to new worlds beyond the earth's sphere and to the spherical representation of the earth's moon and planets.
Let us end this contribution to the Coronelli jubilee with the following thoughts:
The globe not only had immense importance as a means of communication for geography, cartography and astronomy, but was also used to characterise corresponding human activities and to symbolise power in its manifold forms. It is no surprise that at an early stage Claudius Ptolemaeus is depicted with a globe and quadrant on the Campanile in Florence (around 1330) and with a globe and a pair of compasses in the Ptolemaeus edition (Ulm, 1482). In his person, cartography and globography fuse into one indivisible unit.
The 1574 portrait of Gerard Mercator at the age of 62 shows a terrestrial globe and a pair of dividers. The aim is twofold: to characterise him as a scientist and maker of globes and maps, and to make specific reference to Mercator's studies on compass variation.
In 1620 the town of Nuremberg showed its reverence to the mighty Swedish King Gustav II Adolf by presenting him with two globe-shaped goblets. In this way the globe gains significance as an attribute of power, an attribute which is shared by maps and cartography in a historical context but which is "embodied" much more vividly - and literally - by the globe. "The Geographer", painted by Jan Vermeer in 1668, is one of many examples from the 17th to 19th centuries confirming that the globe had meanwhile become a symbol of the erudite burgher.
After the political upheavals following the French Revolution, the globe was often found in caricatures as a metaphor for the striving after hegemony, initially in Europe, then as "imperialism" in all parts of the earth. It often escapes our notice today that the Seven Year War (1756-1763) was fought not only in Europe between Austria and Prussia, but also in North America as the first world war between England and France. The Leatherstocking Tales by James Fenimore Cooper are a literary account of contemporary military action.
"The Great Dictator" takes us up to modern times, the main roles being played by Charles Chaplin and by an easily movable, rotating globe. Chaplin articulates his power fantasies by playing with the globe like a toy - in the end the globe bursts as does the Great Dictator's dream. A globe like Chaplin's really did exist, and in fact it was often used by the prototype of the "Great Dictator". About 1938, the Berlin publishing house of Columbus - the largest German business of its kind - matched the spirit of the times by producing a "Large Globe for Leaders of Government and Business." This huge globe measured 106 cm in diameter, with a total height of 165 cm, and was marketed in a limited edition at a subscription price of 2000 Reichsmark. Interestingly enough, the copies of this globe that survived World War II are now in great demand again.
I should like to close this review with a look into the future.
Founded fifty years ago, the International Coronelli Society will hold its 10th Symposium in the Museum für Kommunikation in Nuremberg on 23-25 September. A few days earlier, from September 19 to 21, the German Society of Cartography will hold its 11th Colloquium on the History of Cartography at the same venue. This will give participants at both meetings a first-ever opportunity to attend the talks and discussions of the neighbouring conference without having to change venue. I should like to suggest that all of us here tonight should use this happy coincidence to consider and discuss a further productive co-operation between these two bodies that extends beyond the present double membership of both societies.
For example, it has been suggested that the colloquia on the history of cartography might be supplemented on a smaller scale by highlighting specific themes in lectures or workshops (also including continuing education). I hope that we will have the opportunity to discuss this suggestion in the course of this gala evening.
Thank you for your attention.
The Globe between Fact and Fiction
'We who have seen the whole earth, either as represented on maps and globes or as reproduced in satellite photographs, find it difficult to adopt the perspective of those who have not. The image of a floating blue and green sphere, with sharply defined oceans and continents, has been so thoroughly assimilated into our mind's eye as to become intuitive. However, the great majority of mankind has lived and died without ever glimpsing this image, and even today, many isolated races remain innocent of it. For such peoples, mind must take the place of maps in giving shape and structure to the inhabited earth; where empirical data give out they employ any other means available - theory, myth, and fantasy - to define and depict the space in which they dwell. [James S. Romme, The edges of the Earth in ancient thought, Princeton, 1992, p. 9]
This concise summary of the ways in which people deal with images of the world could well serve as the basis of a manifesto of what - as seen from my own perspective - have been the goals of the Coronelli Society: to study, to unravel and to elucidate the diversity of images that people have formed of the world around them throughout the ages.
All images of the world have been and still are being created within a specific scientific and social context. Before they can be understood these contexts have to be studied in terms of contemporary ideas and values. This in particular holds for models of the world such as globes and armillary spheres, which have been made since antiquity by a manifold of makers: scientists and artists, women and monks, teachers and school children.
Globes were made for many purposes: to solve scientific problems, to convey ideas and concepts, to teach astronomy and geography or to act as a status symbol for the powerful. Through the activities of the Society this diversity of interests in globes was brought together in a fertile co-operation between collectors, museum curators, conservators, geographers, astronomers and historians of science, cartography and scientific instruments. During the last fifty years this has resulted in a tremendous increase of our knowledge of the whereabouts of many old globes. National globe inventories of many countries are now available and an increasing number of museums have produced detailed catalogues of their collections, or are preparing to do so.
The efforts of the Coronelli Society to promote globes in every context imaginable have made it very clear that making images of the world is innate to the human race from the earliest days, when fiction rather than fact was the main means of expression. The best example of an early image is the well-known description of the world as depicted on Homer's Shield of Achilles on which Hephaistos:
'made the earth, and sky, and sea,
the weariless sun and the moon waxing full,
and all the constellations that crown the heavens,
Pleiades and Hyades, the mighty Orion and the Bear,
which men also call by the name of Wain:
she wheels round in the same place and watches for Orion,
and is the only one not to bathe in Ocean.'
[Homer, Iliad 18.483-608, translation by Hammond 1987, cited by Emma Gee, Ovid, Aratus and Augustus. Astronomy in Ovid's Fasti, Cambridge, 2000, p. 38.]
Homer's poetic way of expressing that the constellation known as the Great Bear never disappears below the horizon, reminds us that even he is not without fact. For most of the city dwellers among us the visual horizon is not part of our daily experience. Only during holidays do we possibly become aware of the way in which the Ocean identifies the horizon and so limits the view of the world around us. Then also the rising and the setting of the Sun and the stars, and maybe a full Moon may catch our imagination, and we can for a short while experience the world as in antiquity. Then also the problems of giving shape and structure to the inhabited Earth are better understood. In the absence of a satellite navigation system, in the absence of accurate watches, in the absence of even a compass, it is no small thing to find one's place on Earth. To do so a clear understanding of astronomical phenomena is vital. Vice versa, the astronomer needs to know his place on Earth to make sense of the variations of the length of the days. This mutual dependence has created a bond between geography and astronomy that has lasted thousands of years.
It is this fruitful interaction between geography and astronomy that in antiquity models of the sphericity of the heavens and the earth came to be explored, a development which ultimately resulted in what has been called the two-sphere model. It consisted of 'an arrangement of two concentric spheres in which the inner sphere represents the earth, and the outer, the orb of the fixed stars'. [Alan C. Bowen and B. R. Goldstein, 'A new view of Early Greek Astronomy', Isis 74 (1983) pp. 330-340, esp. p.333.]
This model seems to be a fundamental contribution of the Greek astronomer and geographer Eudoxus of Cnidos, who lived in the first half of the fourth century BC. It is likely that each of the defining features of the model, i.e. the sphericity of the heavens, of the Earth in the centre, and the notion that the fixed stars rotate about the Earth, were already known before Eudoxus's days. What is new in the model is 'the mathematical analogy of the celestial and terrestrial spheres, an analogy which was exploited on the principle that the properties of the one must correspond to the properties of the other.' [Bowen and Goldstein, op.cit. p. 333.]
It is this very analogy that early geographers based themselves on in order to structure the inhabitable world. Beneath each of the celestial circles such as the equator, the tropics, and the 'ever visible and invisible' circles, is a corresponding terrestrial circle which has the same name. These terrestrial circles provide natural boundaries between the terrestrial zones. The celestial phenomena associated with these circles moreover supplied a rationale for explaining the conditions of life on the earth and the differences between peoples. The 'black skins and thick, woolly hair' of the Ethiopians, who lived in the torrid zones between the equator and the tropics, were explained by the continual oppression by heat. The savage habits of the Scythians, 'who had the Bears over their heads' and 'were far removed from the Zodiac and the heat of the Sun', were consequential to the continuous cold of their dwelling places. [Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, II.2, translation by F. E. Robbins, London,1980, first published 1940, p. 124.] Finally, the people who lived in the temperate region between the summer tropic and the Bears, where the conditions for life are optimal, 'are therefore medium in colouring, of moderate stature, in nature equable, live close together, and are civilised in their habits'. [Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 125.]
The intimate connection between the Heavens and Earth as it is expressed in the two-sphere model of the Greeks has also shaped the more familiar terrestrial and celestial globes made from the fifteenth century until recently. For ages such pairs of globes were used as the standard tools in teaching astronomy and geography.
By looking at these models in an elementary way, a number of functions can be recognised which help to understand what precisely the role of models has been in science, in education and in society. Commonly a model is understood as a small copy or imitation of an existing object, like a ship or a building, made to scale. Models of the world such as globes are far removed from reality, however. This being so, one wonders what exactly the impact has been of globes in Western culture. The complete answer to this question could well define a research program for the Coronelli Society for the next fifty years. It is therefore not my intention to provide such an answer now. However, a few remarks may help to outline the importance of the continued studies of the globe from this epistemological point of view.
One of the most important facets of models such as globes and spheres is what I would like to call the 'doll's house effect'. Many of us may remember the experience - from the days when we were very young - of looking at a doll's house, conveniently worked open to show at one glance the organisation of the house, the structure of its rooms and the way in which they are related. For a child the doll's house is not only a plaything, it is also a manner to gain control over unknown spaces often hidden behind doors which make up the world of the grown-up people: the study, the kitchen, the dining room etc. The doll's house thus conveys a number of messages: it provides knowledge of the structure of the space around us and how its various parts are related: corridors to connect rooms, staircases to connect floors. Knowledge of the space around us produces a feeling of power to be in control of that space, and last but not least, doll's houses are great fun. All three aspects of the 'doll's house effect' are certainly recognisable in the various ways globes have functioned in society.
The main role of globes in science and education has been to present the world around us in a specific, organised manner. The first message that it brings home is the concept of its sphericity. In the days of Strabo and Ptolemy the demonstration of the sphericity of the world does not seem to have been an item in making images of the Earth. Maps were preferred over the three-dimensional possibility, if only because but a very small portion of the Earth was thought of as inhabitable. This situation changed in the Renaissance when the interest in mathematics stimulated the use of models in Western Europe. Models, in particular spherical models, helped to overcome a whole range of mathematical problems in astronomy and geography. The Viennese astronomer Johannes von Gmunden was one of the first lecturers to use an armillary sphere in teaching. A pupil of von Gmunden, Georg Peurbach, is reported to have made 'globes and many other instruments. Peurbach who at the university lectured on Roman poets, wrote himself a poem on Nature in which he acknowledged his indebtedness to mathematics:
Euclid fixes the rules by which I have found clearly the measure of all things,
in what way and manner a comparison of the sun, stars, moon and
the occulted Earth in the human mind can lead to discover
which of these celestial bodies is the smallest and which has the largest mass.
What course is followed by the moon along the several spheres of the entire world;
now does she limp behind the sun,
then Phoebus while sinking in the ocean waves sees her before him;
another time she stands next to thou, O Phoebus,
and then again she holds her horns to meet thee.
Why the Bears fear to be touched by the sea
and where in the sky this constellation withdraws'.
[This English translation is prepared by H. G. van Bueren from the German text cited by Helmuth Grössing, Humanistische Naturwissenschaft. Zur Geschichter der Wiener mathenatischen Schulen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, Baden-Baden, 1983, p. 211.]
Considering the leading role of Vienna in the use of models in education it is not a coincidence that the first record to date of the use of a terrestrial globe in teaching is associated with Conrad Celtes (1459-1508), the famous humanist and founder of the 'Collegium der Poeten und Mathematiker' at the university of Vienna in 1497. Celtes himself owned a terrestrial and a celestial globe, both of which he used during his lectures on cosmography.
The trend in humanistic circles to use globes when teaching the structure of the cosmos in order to overcome the mathematical problems involved, received further stimulus by the explorations of the New World. For ages Western Europeans had believed in the Greek model of the inhabited world, which was largely limited to Europe, Northern Africa, the Middle East and parts of India. That image changed dramatically at the turn of the fifteenth century, when explorers discovered vast inhabited regions distributed all over the surface of the Earth. The excitement felt at the time is perhaps best understood by imagining the impact of the discovery of extra-terrestrial life today. Suppose you always have believed - as I have - that there is no life on the Mars, and that you are suddenly told that there are creatures living on that planet, similar to yourself but still different and monstrous in their habits. One can understand that similar reports on life in remote parts of the Earth triggered all sorts of speculations.
The fortunate coincidence of the invention of the printing press was decisive in the response to the demand for understanding the sphericity of the Earth. The first printed terrestrial globe gores - attributed to Martin Waldseemüller (1470- c. 1520) - were published in 1507 as an illustration in a text book, Cosmographiae Introductio. In the following years a number of booklets appeared, all accompanied by globe gores. In the German translation, published in 1509, it is explained that the globe was made so that 'the Merchant and everybody may see and note how the people below us live and how the sun goes round, here described with many strange things.' [The English translation is prepared by H. G. van Bueren from the German text cited by Peter van der Krogt, Globi Neerlandici. The production of Globes in the Low Countries, Utrecht, 1993, p. 29.]
The fascination with peoples in the New World has been a great stimulus for the study of geography. Pictures of natives are found on many contemporary maps and terrestrial globes. The inclination to show fictional elements in regions otherwise unknown was severely criticised by the English poet Jonathan Swift (1667-1745):
So geographers, in Afric -maps
With savage-pictures fill their gaps;
And o'ver unhabitable downs
Place elephants for want of towns.
[Jonathan Swift, On Poetry (1733), 1.177.]
By the time these lines were written a more conscientious course had already started to measure the Earth scientifically , that is based on facts presented as numbers. To depict the outlines of the lands on Earth, the French Académie Royale des Sciences had taken the initiative to send out geometers all over the world. This resulted in a quantified image of teh Earth in which all sort of imaginary elements were replaced by empty regions, to be explored later by the many inland expeditions of the nineteenth century. Nowadays very little fiction is found on globes anymore. Modern terrestrial globes are adapted to various themes such as climate, physical constitution of the land, etc. but the most common one is the political globe in which the various countries are shown in relation to each other amidst the vast blue oceans.
In addition to their display of information globes are appreciated for their value as analogue computers. With their help one can easily determine the times of the rising and the setting of the Sun and the stars. This particular use of the globe was already recognised in antiquity by the Greek astronomers Hipparchus and Ptolemy and it is still attested around 1600 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. With a globe - so Tycho assures his readers - 'it is possible to determine mechanically, with very little trouble and without difficult calculations, all the details concerning the doctrine of the diurnal rotation of the heavens as well as observations of the celestial bodies relative to the ecliptic and the equator, or any other celestial circles.' [Hans Raeder, Elis Strömgren and Bengt Strömgren, Tycho Brahe's description of his instruments and scientific work, Copenhagen, 1946, p. 105.] The scientific achievements of the great Dane started a new period in making celestial globes. the portrait of Tycho Brahe is shown on the celestial globe made by Willem Jansz Blaeu. This globe was made around 1598 upon Blaeu's return from a stay with Tycho at his observatory at the island Hven and shows Tycho's newly observed star positions.
The contribution of Blaeu to the design of models to instruct us on the world around has not been limited to the production of terrestrial and celestial globes. In 1634 he published in Amsterdam a manual, Tweevoudigh onderwijs van de Hemelsche en Aerdsche Globen (Twofold instruction for the Celestial and Terrestrial Globes), in which models are described from two different perspectives. In the first book of this treatise Blaeu describes the common pair of globes after the opinion of Ptolemy (with a fixed Earth), in the second part he describes his later Copernican models (of a moving Earth). Both models have been visualised in 1671 in a painting by Michiel van Musscher (1645-1705) which is shown in figure 1. The painting is called 'The astronomical lesson'. In the middle is a wealthy Amsterdam merchant surrounded by a collection of astronomical, navigational and surveying instruments. The open book in the corner on the right hand side is a copy of Blaeu's Twofold instruction, showing the title page of the first book - on models after the opinion of Ptolemy- and opposite to it, the title page of the second book - on models after Copernicus 's hypothesis. On the table is a terrestrial globe next to a copy of Ptolemy's Geography and a Bible. The Holy book lies open on the text in Joshua (10: 13) where it is said that God fixed the Sun and the Moon for a whole day. Finally, a tellurium in which the moving Earth is shown in its orbit around the Sun and made by Blaeu is shown on the left of the painting.
The astronomical lesson by Michiel van Musscher of 1671. Oil on canvas, 59.5x51.5 cm
Amsterdams Historisch Museum, inv. no. A35787.
In the Address to the Reader of the Latin translation of Blaeu's treatise the Amsterdam astronomer and teacher of navigation, Martinus Hortensius, brought up the problem of the significance of demonstration models for the acceptance of scientific theories such as the Copernican hypothesis of the universe. He claimed that
'if the Copernican theory had been graphically presented sooner, as it had been recently by Blaeu, it would not have been condemned as absurd before it had been seen how it saved the phenomena, and that more probably than any other system. But because Copernicus himself was "too obscure in his writings to be understood by everyone" and because the use of the Copernican sphere and the hypothesis was not explained in a popular way by any astronomer, many condemned it as false without understanding it'. [Lynn Thorndike, A history of magic and experimental science, Vol. VI, New York, 1941, p. 7.]
The use of models for the public understanding of science as Hortensius would have liked to see attained its full development in the Enlightenment. By that time the debate on the Copernican world system had been decided. Interestingly the acceptance of the Copernican world view did not stop the production of Ptolemaic models. The common pair of globes continued to appeal to its users for various reasons. The popularity of the globe in the Renaissance as a model of space and an image of the world seems to have gone hand in hand with the recognition that knowledge is socially meaningful. In the princely courts common to the Renaissance, models such as globes served a double purpose: their design and construction created jobs for mathematicians and artists alike, which improved their social status and by showing them the owner demonstrated his knowledge of the world, his intellectual level, his wealth and his power. Status could be achieved through the fame of its author or maker or by dedications on them to important influential people. Wealth was demonstrated by the use of expensive materials, and the size of globe. Power was demonstrated by the lands owned and by the trade carried out to far away places. And finally - in a way comparable to the doll's house - globes indeed presented an easy and agreeable way of transferring general and useful knowledge and understanding of our world.
Throughout the centuries patronage has played an important role, as is still the case for all intellectual activity. Today Western culture is pervaded with the achievements of science, recognisable in daily life by the endless array of household goods such as vacuum cleaners, or the more advanced communicative techniques met in computer technology. The main structural basis for this impact of science in society is an overall high level of education in fundamental and applied science provided by universities. At a different level the most advanced cosmological ideas on the structure of the world and other academic subjects are advocated in series of popular literature. Education and popularisation have gone hand in hand in bringing about the cultural scope of science. Globes provide an ideal model for the study of the processes involved in the public recognition of science. After 50 years, there is still a lot of research to do in this respect. This can be done only with the help and support of scholars, governments, collectors, members of the Coronelli Society, in short with the support of all who in one way or another take an interest in Globes.
Report on the General Assembly in 2001+2002
The Coronelli Society's General Assembly reviewed the activities undertaken during the year 2001. It noted that membership had risen (25 new members) due to increased publicity during geographical meetings in the United States and Canada. In spite of the regrettable loss of some members due to death and cancellation of membership, the total number of members is rising.
The Society's new publication, NEWS, which started to appear in 2001, was received very positively. Readers appreciated that all articles were being published both in German and English. Contributions to this bulletin from among the members were always welcome. Due to various production delays related to the photographs to be used for illustrations, the new issue of DER GLOBUSFREUND / GLOBE STUDIES would appear late, in 2002.
The Coronelli Society's homepage was updated (http://www.coronelli.org). In addition to the provision of general information, a link for direct E-mail contact with the Society's Board members and a facility for online registration of new members were installed.
A number of articles on the Coronelli Society were published in various newspapers and magazines, as well as in specialised publications and journals, which made the Society better known to the general public.
The treasurer reported with pleasure that the Society's financial basis was very sound. The possibility of paying bills and membership fees via credit card was welcomed, particularly by the Society's foreign members, and it proved to be more economical due to the elimination of handling charges. Following the auditors' positive report, the Board was released for the year 2000.
The general assembly of the International Coronelli Society took place in Nuremberg, Germany, on 24 September 2002, during the Society's 10th International Symposium. This arrangement had the advantage of increasing participation in the general assembly, leading to a wider range of opinions expressed and to enhanced decision?making.
The President of the Society presented a summary of events and activities during the previous year.
On the occasion of his retirement and at his own initiative, Mr. Tony Campbell, a long?time member of the Coronelli Society, withdrew from his function as member of the Extended Board. In accordance with the Society's statutes, the Board co?opted Mr. Peter Barber, head of the British Library Map Collections, to the Extended Board. Both gentlemen received warm thanks for their contributions and commitment.
The festive gathering on occasion of the Society's 50th anniversary on 11 June 2002, which took place on the premises of the Austrian National Library in Vienna, was a great success. About 220 participants listened to the lectures delivered by Ms. Elly Dekker and Mr. Wolfgang Scharfe and subsequently attended the festive reception.
Enlarging the Society's membership continues to be a pressing aim. It is gratifying that the possibility of online registration via the Society's homepage is being used. As the Treasurer mentioned in her report, membership rose by 17 between 2001 and 2002, in spite of a few withdrawals. This encouraging trend continued and until September 2002 another six members joined, bringing membership to a total of 283.
The first bilingual edition of DER GLOBUSFREUND / GLOBE STUDIES (no. 49/50 for 2001/2002) containing the lectures delivered at the Globe Symposium in Montreal was published and distributed. The current year's issue of the Society's bulletin NEWS is due to appear by the end of 2002. An online version of NEWS, continuously updated and serviced with great dedication by Vice President Peter van der Krogt, is accessible via the International Coronelli Society's homepage.
It is one of the Society's high?priority aims to become more widely known - or to continue to be known - in the scientific community through measures strengthening the Society's media presence. In this context, the interest shown in the Society by the editors of the History of Cartography journal CARTOGRAPHICA HELVETICA, and theyr support, were very gratifying indeed.
The statement of accounts presented by the Treasurer showed a minor loss over the previous year, mainly due to the significantly higher production costs of NEWS compared with the former bulletin "Informationen". The Auditors acknowledged the correctness of the Society's financial management and proposed to relieve the Board. The General Assembly unanimously adopted this proposal. The Society's financial situation in 2002 is characterised by exceptional expenditures on the 50th anniversary celebration and increased production costs for DER GLOBUSFREUND / GLOBE STUDIES.
The discussion dealt with the production of DER GLOBUSFREUND in two separate volumes, a German?langue and an English?language one. This form of publication led to the expected reduction of paper and postage costs but, on the other hand, there are problems with quoting individual contributions. The suggestion to obtain needed detailed information through the editor, Mr. Johannes Dörflinger, or via the online website serviced by Mr. Peter van der Krogt was accepted as a viable compromise for the time being. Both gentlemen immediately offered their co?operation.
After the official end of the general assembly, the exchange of views continued informally in the friendly atmosphere of Nuremberg's pubs and new suggestions were voiced how the International Coronelli Society could become even more attractive both for its members and for science and research.
Walter Wiesinger, secretary
Xth International Symposium, Nuremberg
From 23rd to 25th September 2002, about sixty friends of the globe - collectors, scientists, museum curators, restoration experts and traders - gathered in Nuremberg, Germany, to attend the 10th International Symposium on Globe Studies organised by our Society.
The place of the Symposium was deliberately chosen, because in autumn 2002 the city of Nuremberg became something like the metropolis of history of cartography. A few days before our meeting, the 11. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium - known to be the most influential scientific gathering in this field in the German-language area - had also taken place there, and concurrently with our Symposium the an exhibition "'auserlesene und allerneueste Landkarten' Der Verlag Homann in Nürnberg 1702-1848" took place, where, inter alia, a very rare pocket globe (with an armillary sphere inside the terrestrial globe) made by Johann Baptist Homann was on show.
The scientific part of our globe symposium consisted of twenty lectures and reports, presentations of posters and information on the latest globe market trends, as well as group excursions to museums and exhibitions. In addition, symposium participants had the opportunity of buying old originals, but also facsimile copies, directly from globe traders, who displayed their objects on the premises of the symposium. There were many opportunities for meeting other participants or for refreshing earlier contacts at social occasions such as the evening reception given by our main sponsor, the Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, or during side-events like a guided tour of the city. Proof that this aspect of the symposium was a success were the numerous positive remarks by participants who particularly praised the pleasant, almost family?like atmosphere of the symposium. Our thanks go to Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, Stadtmuseum Fembohaus, Germanisches Nationalmuseum for their support and we are particularly grateful to the Museum für Kommunikation Nürnberg, which is part of the Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, for their hospitality and their friendly practical support during the meeting.
We would also like to thank all those who gave presentations at the symposium. These contributions will be published by Johannes Dörflinger in the next issue of our scientific journal DER GLOBUSFREUND/GLOBE STUDIES, due to appear in 2003/2004.
Having witnessed two symposia on globe studies in the German-language area, we would be pleased if our next meeting, the 11th International Symposium on Globe Studies, could be organised by globe connoisseurs from another part of the world in co-operation with the Board of the International Coronelli Society.
Globe Hunt in the Internet
Having introduced online auction houses of interest to globe collectors and globe lovers in our last issue, we are now highlighting globe collections accessible through the Internet.
For each globe represented in those digital collections, normally the date of issue, the globe maker and the place of production are listed, which is supplemented by descriptive texts of varying length. The Internet links listed below only concern sites where, in addition to those data, the user will also find images of the respective globes. Due to their low resolution, the quality of those images unfortunately does not allow research on details. All sites selected by us contain information on several globes and on globes which are not on sale.
It may interest our readers that by conducting Internet searches with the terms "Globensammlung" and "globe collection", respectively, one will find a great number of collections based mostly on gif-animations, which constitute a special type of collection presenting images of the earth of varying aesthetic quality.
The links selected by us will guide users to the "highlights" among digital collections (in which, nevertheless, there is a good deal of room for improvement):
The site called "20th Century Globes" contains a "Globe Photo Gallery" presenting a large collection of globes mostly dated 1900-1960. Among the globes listed, there are specimens by George F. Cram, Denoyer-Geppert, W. & A. K. Johnston, Nystrom, Rand McNally, Replogle, Weber Costello and many others. Remarkably, this site is the only one supplementing the globe images with a detailed representation of the respective label.
The David Rumsey Collection (DRC) contains rare cartographic objects, mostly on 18th and 19th-century America, some of them globes. Access is possible with the "insight browser", by successively entering "search", "by keyword" and "globe". One arrives, inter alia, at Betts's New Portable Terrestrial Globe (1852), or Rand McNally's six-inch Terrestrial Globe (1892). The DRC site is among the few ones offering excellent zoom facilities.
Yale University has made the Lanman Globe Collection accessible via this site. It contains globes dated 1699-1837, such as Perce's Magnetic Globe by Elbert Perce, Newton's Improved Pocket Celestial Globe, London 1818, and D.D.D. Pater Magister Vincentius Coronelli Min: Conv. S. Francisci Serenissimae Venetorum Reipublicae Cosmographus MDCLXXXIX, 1699. Two images are provided for each globe.
Via this link, which is somewhat hard to retrieve, the University of Bologna provides access to its globe collection containing, inter alia, globes by Blaeu, Coronelli, Valk, Senex, Cassini and Bianchi. By clicking the globe images, one gets enlargements.
Under the heading "special exhibitions", the University of San Jose presents a collection of historical cartographic images in the widest sense, some of them globes.
Visitors to our shop in the Old Post Office usually stare with disbelief after they enter the front door. A blue and tan twenty-four inch school globe standing tall as a man greets them. Then their eyes try to take in the jam-packed panorama of hundreds of globes, wall maps, shelves of atlases and explorations and other cartographic abundance. Globes sit on tables, bookcases, map cabinets, file cabinets, and taller globes crowd around the floor and along the walls.
Murray Hudson and some of his globes
When I tell them this is only half the collection, they reel at the thought of over a thousand world globes varying in size from one inch World's Fair salt and pepper shaker globes to a thirty-two inch paper on steel globe by Heinrich Kiepert highlighting volcanic and seismic activity at the turn of the twentieth century.
Globes do not fold and fit into shallow drawers, except odd inflatable or umbrella types of which I have a few examples. As a map collector prior to my obsession with globes, I could store hundreds of double folio maps in a ten-drawer cabinet.
I solved the storage problem by converting a large barn on our family farm to a globe barn. We completed the shelving and lighting just in time for a live Fox TV broadcast from the barn. This "Super Collection" show using hundreds of globes for background, featured an eighteenth century English pocket globe, a James Wilson (the self-taught father of U.S. globe making) terrestrial globe and several curiosities, including a 1930s black ocean AM radio globe mounted in a ship's helm for meridian. When it is plugged in the radio still tunes in to a local station by turning the globe.
The globe collection grew out of my decades of cartographic interest. I bought my first antique maps while attending a graduate seminar at Oxford, England in 1964. This cartographic avocation became a vocation in the 1970s, and I always had a globe or two on display.
Out of the blue an insatiable desire came over me: globemania. Everywhere I went in search of maps, I suddenly saw globes.
Early in the passion, when I had only a hundred or so, an antique magazine did an article mentioning my globe-buying propensity. I was attending a large outdoor antique fair in Virginia and overheard a dealer commenting on the article. "There is some crazy guy in Tennessee buying up all the globes he can find."
"I'm the crazy globe man." I told him. Unfortunately, he had no decent globes for sale.
As I focused more, I decided to concentrate on representative U.S. made globes. Hence, most of my collection is of American origin, although several have British gores, since Weber Costello, Nystrom and other U.S. globe makers used W. & A. K. Johnston or G. W. Bacon gores early on. I can usually detect these gores at a distance since one of their most distinguishing features is isometric lines waving around the orb.
I have driven thousands of miles to pick up and occasionally deliver oversized globes, ones that were too large to conveniently and affordable ship. During the ballot controversy of the U.S. 2000 presidential election, I drove a rented van to Tallahassee, Florida, where the ballots were being taken. My rental van was named B_ _ _ _ T, so I joked about covering the middle letters to read BALLOT in order to get a police escort. On that journey I loaded up a 32 inch Replogle "Diplomat" globe, the model used in the Oval Office of the White House. It would not fit through my office door, so I stored it briefly until I delivered it to a client in Madison, Wisconsin. I had driven the same 500 miles distance north to deliver it as I had south to get it. It is handy to live in the Mid-South because I am equidistant from Atlanta, New Orleans, Dallas, and Chicago.)
Shop visitors often ask me which is my oldest, most valuable or favorite globe. The first question is easy. My oldest globe currently is an 1807 Bardin: "The New 12-inch British Terrestial Globe . . ." on a Chippendale walnut stand with superb brass fittings. It shows "the discoveries of Captain Cook and Subsequent Circumnavigators . . ." and Britain's claim on Oregon Territory. It is also one of my most valuable globes along with a sixteen-inch Charles Copely globe made in Boston, showing the new "National Park" in Wyoming. It is mounted in an unusual American cast iron floor stand with acanthus leaves, vines and flowers on the pedestal and feet.
It is difficult to choose my favorite. I have favorites of different types of globes. In the historical category I am intrigued, as are Texans, by an 1840s globe that shows Texas as a separate republic. A later nineteenth century globe depicts the transcontinental railroads and intercontinental telegraph lines just laid across the oceans. A 1930s Cram globe has an overprint in red denying the validity of Japanese control in Manchuria. A 1960s globe celebrates the first U.S. space orbit with an extra metal ring and a wooden bead that moves on it.
One of the rarest globes we have is a salesman's sample 8-inch Holbrook (Apparatus) Co. globe made in Berea, Ohio (circa 1870) in its original painted pine carrying case with lock to protect it as the salesman took it around his territory bouncing along on a buggy, stagecoach, or train. The globe remains in extremely good condition with its full mount horizon ring, gilt and black painted cast iron stand and such details as isothermal lines and stylish astrological figures on the horizon ring.
Another amazing survivor is a glass globe from the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. This globe doubles as a coal oil lamp complete with elaborate trimmer and wick. North and South America are depicted as two ladies in long yellow and red dresses whose hands are clasped near Costa Rica and whose arms form Central America. Various World and Regional fairs produced globe souvenirs in all manner of unusual forms.
Globes became popular for decor in the 1930s and the decorative uses are burgeoning today. We have several which were used as lampstands in the 1930s and 40s. Globes seem to symbolize both wealth and worldly wise sophistication of travelers. Advertisements, television, shows, architecture and decorator magazines have many examples of globes used to portray a semblance of sophistication. I have had interior decorators buy globes of stairstep sizes (16-inch, 12-inch, 8-inch, 6-inch, 3-inch) to arrange for a studied effect on a room divider.
Once we had a series of globes illustrated in a major decorating magazine. Nearly all the globes sold immediately. The featured globe at the first of the article was a "project globe" with no topographical or political details, simply black continents on grey-green oceans. It had quite an appeal to certain people who called wildly desiring it. We have several large (21-inch) project globes with unusual bluegreen ocean and black land or dark blue ocean and rust orange continents. They are of such quality materials and workmanship that we feel they must have been produced for university or military training.
We have standard size globes with oceans colored beige, green, black, and, rarely, silver. The Cram Company introduced several of these unusual ocean colors in the 1930s, one of the most creative periods for U.S. globe making.
Although we have entertained visitors/clients from places as diverse as England, German, Italy, Brazil and the Philippines, our global outreach really took off with the Internet. Our websites connect us with clients from Beijing to Dublin, from Austria to New Zealand. Now anyone with a computer can virtually walk into Murray Hudson Antiquarian Books, Maps Prints and Globes and experience the visual stimulation of maps and globes galore. You can access a description and usually a photograph of an 1890 celestial globe on a Celtic motif tripod stand or an 1880s terrestrial globe with red horizon ring and a Wizard of Oz/Denslow type lion's head figure in the cast nickel stand. Or you can see two airplane-based globes as they stand side by side ready to taxi down the 1940s runway to someone's den or an aviator's desk. The descriptions give cartographer, globemaker, place and date made, borders and political names of interest, stand hardware, condition and any unusual features.
In the early 1900s U.S. school globe makers hit upon the idea of a classroom globe which could be raised and lowered by line, pulleys and a weight. This was to keep the fragile plaster orb out of the reach of schoolboys. I have encountered some of these globes with smashed craters exactly the size of the cannonball-style weight. Ah, the best laid plans.
Last year we sold a hanging globe in its original 1910 shipping box for an Arkansas schoolhouse being restored in a state park. Without globe collectors and dealers it is unlikely that the Arkansas State Park Service could have found such a globe. Our preservation of the past does have its purpose and rewards, both tangible and intangible.
Protecting Heaven and Earth - The Conservation of Globes
Globe conservation was not a career option I had ever considered when I was at university or even when I was studying for a post-graduate diploma in paper conservation. However, life can take some unexpected and interesting turns. In my case, being offered a studentship in the conservation of globes at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London, certainly opened up a new world to me. With its superb collection, the museum was an ideal starting place for a beginner to learn about globes. My studentship also incorporated a prolonged visit to the Austrian National Library in Vienna with its own magnificent collection of globes, where my learning continued.
After leaving the Maritime Museum I set up my own conservation studio which for several years has been based in Lambeth, London. There is a pleasing coincidence here in that the first printed globes to be made in England, those by Emery Molyneux, were also made in Lambeth.
My main work consists of the cleaning and repair of old and damaged globes. Most of the globes that find their way to my studio date from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries but I have also worked on earlier globes and 20th century globes are making more appearances. By now, I have worked on several hundred globes and I feel I am still learning. Many globes look very similar but in fact every one is different; even within a pair each globe may respond in a different way to the same treatment. The practical work I carry out generally falls into two categories: surface treatment and structural repairs. Treatment of the surface will usually include cleaning and if the varnish has become brittle and discoloured, this too may be removed. These two procedures, and sometimes simple cleaning alone, can often transform a globe from something dark, yellowed and ill-looking into an object where colour and printed detail - in fact the reason the globe was made - can be seen once again. Globe conservation can be a little more challenging when confronted with a broken shell, or the possibility that the internal structure has been damaged. In these cases the paper gores may have to be removed in order to carry out repairs to the underlying layers. All these procedures must be carried out with great care and this can be very time consuming. It must not be forgotten that other parts of a globe; horizon ring, stand and meridian ring, will inevitably require attantion too.
In addition to practical conservation work, I am increasingly asked to carry out condition surveys for globe collections which have been long neglected. Any survey I undertake will aim to categorise the condition of each globe and prioritise those globes that are most in need of attention. The survey generally forms the basis for a programme of conservation work. Inevitably, this is often a slow process for it can take time for funds to be found and so on but before any practical work takes place on specific globes, a survey may initiate other straightforward measures that can be taken to safeguard the globes,for example, improving storage conditions or carrying out very simple first aid, if it is required.
Most of my work is carried out for institutions which include the British Library, the National Trust, various university libraries and also museums in the United Kingdom and abroad. However, I also do work for private owners of globes.
The aim of my work as a globe conservator is to preserve these objects in as fine and stable a state as possible for the future. Objects of great age, like people, can rarely look as good as they did in their youth, especially if they have had a rough passage through life. However, with careful and gentle treatment and by sympathetic repair and replacement of broken parts, the process of decay can be halted and the objects returned to a state of stability. Their appearance can be partially, and sometimes wholly, recovered and by a judicious choice of materials and aftercare globes can be protected against future injury and they can be allowed to show their age with grace and dignity.
Conservation of Globes
158 Old South Lambeth Road
London SW8 1XX, UK
Tel/Fax: +44-20-1581 1593
Around the Globe
On the occasion of the International Coronelli Society's 50th anniversary, the Austrian National Library's sponsoring officer, Dr. Margarethe Strassnig-Bachner, donated a rare and precious globe to the Globe Museum. The specimen in question is "Brandegger's Kinderglobus", with a diameter of 12 cm, made around 1850. This early example of a didactic globe, specially designed for the instruction of children, is now on display in the Vienna Globe Museum.
The regional museum of the city of Oettingen, Bavaria, contains globes by the Amsterdam publishing house of Jodocus Hondius hitherto unknown to the scientific world. The objects in question are a pair of globes, each with a diameter of 21 cm, the celestial globe dated 1601. The terrestrial globe making up the pair is a later edition, from the year 1618. Only very few specimens of those two globes have survived. Peter van der Krogt listed them as HON III (celestial globe) and HON III, State 2 (terrestrial globe) in his basic manual Globi Neerlandici (Utrecht 1993). The terrestrial globe is of particular interest in this case since it is evidence for a hitherto unknown characterstic: in contrast to all other known copies of this globe, the name Jodocus Hondius is absent both from the cartouche and the instructions for users.
So far, the globes produced by the Augsburg map publisher Matthäus Albrecht Lotter (1741-1810), son and successor of Tobias Conrad Lotter, have not been the subject of research. On 7 June 2000, the auction house Christie's in London presented an undated celestial globe by Matthäus Albrecht Lotter, 31 cm in diameter, for auction. Previously, this "Globus Coelestis" had only been known from fragmentary engravings of the gores (Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet). A complete set of engravings for the celestial globe has recently surfaced in the private map collection of Anton Lotter, Stadtbergen. The set, three separate sheets, consists of the globe gores, the polar calottes, and the horizon ring. In addition, this private map collection contains another complete set of engravings (three sheets) for the respective - so far unknown - terrestrial globe making up the pair. This globe, entitled "Globe Terrestre", was made immediately after James Cook had completed his third voyage, i.e. around 1780-1871. All six sheets of engravings are in perfect condition.
The search for a small, 5-inch (15 cm), terrestrial globe produced around 1830 by the Augsburg map publisher Johannes Walch has, so far, not been crowned with success. Anyone possessing information about an extant specimen is kindly requested to notify the International Coronelli Society.
Each year, thousands of visitors walk past it: a conspicuous and stately relief globe, 2 metres in diameter, situated in front of the Zeiss Planetarium in Vienna's "Prater" recreation ground. Visitors stop, contemplate the globe, turn it around, take snapshots, or are photographed in front of it. The Zeiss Planetarium operators, of course, appreciate their interesting eye-catcher. Unfortunately, the weather and the wear and tear of 30 years of service have left their mark on the globe. Its colours have faded, its surface has become rough and there are holes in it. The Zeiss Planetarium Vienna is therefore looking for support towards the urgently needed restoration of this unique object. Both financial and practical help are welcome. In recognition of any contributions, a plaque mentioning the names of individuals or logos of sponsors is to be mounted besides the globe. For further information about this project, please contact Mag. Monika Fischer at the Zeiss Planetarium, tel. +43-1-72 95 494-12 or e-mail email@example.com.
From 1998 to 2000, the liturgy area of the pilgrimage church of Mariazell, Styria, was thoroughly renovated and partly redesigned. In the course of this renovation, the high altar, designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and built between 1700 and 1702, was meticulously restored by two Viennese metal restorers, Mag. Elisabeth Krebs and Mag. Verena Krehon.
Part of the ensemble forming the altar decoration, which is one of the most impressive works of baroque decorative art in Austria, is a terrestrial globe. Besides its multi-faceted symbolic functions, it also serves as a tabernacle. It constitutes a rare and particularly striking example of the use of globes for decorative purposes in church interiors.
Its sphere with a diameter of 185 cm is a wood construction whose surface is covered with partly gilded sheet silver. This was commissioned with the Augsburg silver tradesman Christoph Schantanell, but the actual handicraft has been attributed to the two goldsmiths Emanuel and Philipp Jakob Drentwitt. (Cf. Der Mariazeller Hochaltar, ed. Basilika Mariazell, Benediktiner Superiorat, St. Pölten, 2001; and Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz, "Johann Bernhard Fischers von Erlach Hochaltar und die Arbeiten Lorenzo Mattiellis in Mariazell", in: Barockberichte. Informationsblätter des Salzburger Barockmuseums zur bildenden Kunst des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, 2001, pp. 692-727).
The cartographic representation on this globe is engraved and consists of the grid of parallels and meridians, the ecliptic with the signs of the zodiac, the oceans, four continents, islands, but also mythological creatures and ships. The land areas, except waters, are gilded. This cartographic representation has not yet been scientifically analysed and, so far, comparison with available contemporary globes has not allowed the identification of a model for the globe in question.
We have received detailed information following our report on the restoration of a terrestrial globe by Didier Robert de Vaugondy (cf. NEWS 2001, p. 18). The gores had been removed from the surface many years earlier. It was impossible to reapply them to the surface of the restored sphere. Therefore, it was decided to take high-resolution scans of the engravings, to "clean" the sets of digital data thus obtained and subsequently to reproduce the engravings on suitable paper using digital printing techniques. These prints were glued to the restored sphere, while the original globe gores, apparently, continue to be kept in the university library's strongbox. (Cf. Susanne Krömker and Jens Dannehl, "Wissenschaftliches Rechnen und Restaurierung einer Globuskugel. Bericht über eine geglückte Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Interdisziplinären Zentrum für Wissenschaftliches Rechnen und der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg", in Theke. Informationsblatt der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter im Bibliothekssystem der Universität Heidelberg 2000, for further literature see pp. 27-36).
New publications on globes
Johannes Stoffers: Globus und Karte in Karikaturen zur Aussen- und Internationalen Politik. In: Auswärtiger Dienst. Vierteljahresschrift der Vereinigung Deutscher Auslandsbeamten e.V., 60/1999. 13-38.
Nicolangelo Scianna: Vincenzo Coronelli construttore di globi. Le vite parallele di Vincenzo Coronelli e Luigi Ferdinando Marsili. In: Un intellettuale europeo e il suo universo: Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718). Ed. by Maria Gioia Tavoni. - Bologna 1999. 118-137.
Fabrizio Bònoli: Coronelli astronomo e il globi celeste. Le vite parallele di Vincenzo Coronelli e Luigi Ferdinando Marsili. In: Un intellettuale europeo e il suo universo: Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718). Ed. by Maria Gioia Tavoni. - Bologna 1999. 138-161.
Elly Dekker, Kristen Lippincott: The Scientific Instruments in Holbeins Ambassadors: A Re-Examination. In: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 62/1999. 93-125.
John R. Millburn: Adams of Fleet Street. Instrument Makers to King George III. - Ashgate Publ., Aldershot, 2000.
Monique Pelletier: Le 'Globe vert' et l'oevre cosmographique de Gymnase vosgien. In: Bulletin du Comité Français de Cartographie 163/2000. 17-31.
Monique Pelletier: Cartographie de la France et du monde de la Renaissance au Siècle des lumières. - Bibliothèque nationale de la France, Paris 2001.
Gudrun Zögner, Lothar Zögner: Globen in Berlin. In: Kartographische Sammlungen in Berlin. Geschichte, Standorte, Informationen. Ed. by Lothar Zögner (= Kartensammlung und Kartendokumentation 12, Gotha 2001) 69-90.
Jan Mokre: Große Pläne, kleine Kugeln - Globen im Verlag Homann. In: "auserlesene und allerneueste Landkarten" Der Verlag Homann in Nürnberg 1702-1848. Ed. by Michael Diefenbacher, Markus Heinz, Ruth Bach-Damaskinos (= Ausstellungskataloge des Stadtarchivs Nürnberg 14, Nürnberg 2002) 138-149.
Sven Hauschke: Globen und Wissenschaftliche Instrumente. Die europäischen Höfe als Kunden Nürnberger Mathematiker. In: Quasi Centrum Europae. Europa kauft in Nürnberg, 1400 - 1800. Ed. by Hermann Maué, Thomas Eser, Sven Hauschke, Jana Stolzenberger. Exhibition cataogue - Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg 2002. 365-389.
On 16 February 2002, DDr. Robert Haardt, Coronelli Society member for half a century, passed away, aged 81. He was the son of the founder of our Society and had joined it in 1952.
On 4 April 2002, Coronelli Society member Nico Israel died in Amsterdam. He was considered to be one of the past century's most important antiquarian booksellers. As a publisher of great renown, he also brought out numerous works relevant to the history of cartography, such as numerous facsimile atlases, published in the "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" series or Koeman's "Atlantes Neerlandici". From 1962 to 1972, Nico Israel in Amsterdam also acted as publisher of IMAGO MUNDI. The International Journal for the History of Cartography.
Dr. Maximilian Kratochwil, Vienna
Günther Leisten, Cologne
Architekt Dipl. Ing. Alfons Oberlack, Cologne
Friedrich Wager, Vienna
Globes at Auctions Auktionsergebnisse
From catalogues of Christie's and Sotheby's we draw the following results (left estimates and right hammer price with buyer premium, in British Pounds - US Dollar denoted by $).
CHRISTIE's South Kensington, 6 June 2001
1 - A 1¼-inch (2,8 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe, unsigned, probably English, early 19th-Century. With steel axis pins contained in a purple plush-lined red morocco-covered drum-shaped case with a brass hook and eye, 1 5/8 in. (4,1 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 -----
4 - A 1¾-inch (4,4 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe, German, signed 'Die ERDE im kleinen C. B.'. With steel axis pins in a turned mahogany box (loose) with domed lid
1,200 - 1,500 -----
6 - A 4-inch (10 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, c. 1890, signed 'ERD-GLOBUS 10 Cent. N. d. neuesten Quellen entw. BERLIN. Ludw. Jul. Heymann.' on an ebonised baluster-turned column and plinth base with small inset glazed compass. 8½ in. (21,5 cm) high
350 - 500 446
11 - A pair of 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter miniature globes, the terrestrial 'NEWTON'S New & Improved TERRESTRIAL GLOBE Published by Newton & Son 66 Chancery Lane & Fleet St, Temple Bar', the celestial 'NEWTON'S Improved Pocket Celestial GLOBE', both with unengraved brass meridian half-ring, raised on a turned fruitwood column and circular plinth base. 5¾ in. (14,5 cm) high
2,500 - 3,500 2,350
13 - A 10-inch diameter Lunar globe, Moscow, 1961, raised on a simple ebonised bakelite plinth base -14¾ in. (37,5 cm) high
1,800 - 2,000 2,585
15 - An unusual 6-inch diameter Islamic wooden manuscript celestial globe, probably 19th Century, with graduated equator, ecliptic and both equinoctial and solstitial colures, no constellations shown, but several notes in Arabic, with holes at the celestial and ecliptic poles for mounting
800 - 1,200 3,290
19 - A 2¾-inch (7 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial inkwell globe, unsigned, the northern hemisphere hinged to open to reveal a glass inkwell inside
20 - 'Patent 19460 RICHARD'S CHRONOSPHERE' with a 6-inch (15.5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, c. 1910. the base stamped with 'MADE IN FRANCE 181 - 11½ in. (29,2 cm) high
500 - 800 940
22 - A 16-inch (c. 40 cm) diameter collapsible terrestrial globe, c. 1890, with black enamelled umbrella-type frame, contained in the original wooden case. The globe signed 'BY THE QUEEN'S ROYAL LETTERS PATENT BETT'S PORTABLE TERRESTRIAL GLOBE COMPILED FROM THE LATEST AND BEST AUTHORITIES LONDON: GEORGE PHILIP & SON, 32 FLEET STREET. LIVERPOOL: CAXTON BUILDINGS AND 49 & 51, SOUTH CASTLE STREET'.
400 - 600 235
26 - A 'NEW PORTABLE ORRERY by W. JONES, Made and Sold by W. & S. JONES, 30 Holborn LONDON' with a 1½-inch (3,8 cm) diameter earth globe signed 'W. & S. JONES, LONDON'.
12,000 - 15,000 21,150
27 - A mid 19th-Century French geocentric armillary sphere, unsigned, but in the manner of the Delamarche atelier, with a 1½-inch (3,8 cm) diameter terrestrial globe at the centre, on an ebonised turned column and stepped plinth base - 19 in. (48,3 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 -----
30 - A 19th-Century Italian armillary sphere, unsigned, the 1½-inch (3,8 cm) diameter terrestrial globe at the centre, with separate arms for the papered sun and moon discs, within red-painted iron polar, tropic and equatorial rings, each papered on the upper surface, raised on an ebonised baluster-turned plinth base. 14½ in. (36,8 cm) high
1,500 - 2,000 1,175
31 - An early 19th-Century orrery, unsigned, the gilt-brass sun ball with six rotating planet arms with ivory planet balls, earth with one ivory moon ball on an arm, Jupiter with four moon balls, Saturn with a ring ad five moon balls, turning from the centre of a 7-inch (17.8 cm) diameter horizon plate, laid on a drum-shaped mahogany support atop a baluster turned column and circular plinth base. 11½ in. (29,2 cm) high
800 - 1,200 2,585
33 - A 19th-Century orrery, the 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter celestial globe at the centre signed 'DELAMARCHE No. 25 Rue Serpente PARIS', held on a cast brass column above a turning horizontal plate, printed with a flat projection of the earth, surrounded by a fixed enamelled hour scale number I-XII (2x) with gilt border, around which rotates a decorative band depicting the various inhabitants of the world, half passing beneath a fixed blue and white painted sleeve entitled HEURES DE NUIT, the whole surrounded by a raised enamel ring graduated in degrees and in hours 1-24 and showing the phases of the moon with the moon figures picked out in gilt, fixed to a heavy marble plinth base.
6,000 - 8,000 11,162
34 - A mid 19th-Century French tellurium, the 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial globe signed 'DELAMARCHE Paris Rue Serpente'
6,000 - 8,000 8,225
35 - A late 18th-Century brass and silvered-brass Martin-type orrery, signed on the horizontal plate 'Miller Edinburgh', the central geared mechanism with five planet arms with ivory planet balls and subsidiary geared mechanism for the painted plaster earth ball, shaded ivory moon ball and glass Mars ball, mounted on an octagonal brass horizontal drum (sun ball missing, earth ball lacking gores, all planets lacking moon balls and with replacement supporting arms, Mars a replacement glass bead, brass stand a replacement), 13¾ in. (34,9 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 7,637
41 - A pair of 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial 'JORDGLOB Utgifven af C. AKRELL, 1864. Tilverkas af L.C. Hasselgren Stockholm', the celestial 'HIMMELSGLOB L. C. Hasselgren', both spheres mounted with unengraved meridian half-circle, raised on a baluster turned fruitwood column and plinth base, with inset compass. 17½ in. (44,4 cm) high
3,500 - 4,500 5,875
42 - A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, c. 1905, signed 'Verlag Berliner Allgemeine Zeitung Berlin SW, Königgrätzerstr,. 40/42' raised atop a stooped cast bronze figure of Hercules, the plinth base impressed with 'J. D. Thomas SOUTHAMPTON 1859 JUNE 1' - 34½ in. (87,8 cm) high
1,200 - 1,500 3,290
43 - A quartet of 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter terrestrial and celestial globe and two armillary spheres (geocentric and heliocentric), the terrestrial globe signed 'GLOBE Classique NOUVELLE ÉDITION Par CH. DIEN MÉDAILLE D'ARGENT Revu en 1849 SAURET - ANDRIVEAU Successeurs Rue des Beaux Arts, 8', the celestial globe 'Dressé PAR CH. DIEN. PARIS Sauret-Andriveau. Succ. Rue des Beaux Arts 8.', the Ptolemaic armillary sphere with 2-inch (5,1 cm) diameter terrestrial globe 'DELAMARCHE No 12 Rue du Jardinet PARIS', the Copernican armillary sphere with 1¼-inch (3,2 cm) diameter brass sun ball at the centre arranged with three gear wheels to the small brown and green painted earth ball and with-painted moon-ball, with wire arms for eight further white-painted planet balls, with stamped brass equinoctial and solstitial colures. The four spheres with typical Charles Dien steel horizon rings and stamped brass meridian circles, mounted on turned ebonised column and stepped plinth base. 20-inch (50,8 cm) high each, avagerage; together with a copy of 'De l'Usage des Globes et des Sphères, Charles Dien, Nouvelle Édition, E. Bertaux, Libraire-Éditeur, 8°.
20,000 - 25,000 30,550
44 - A 7-inch (17,8 cm) diameter terrestrial table globe 'Publié par CH. DIEN Geoge E. BERTAUX, Editeur Rue Serpente, 25', with engraved brass meridian half-circle, mounted on a short brass-topped ebonised tapered wooden column and plinth base. 13¾ in. (35.9 cm) high
1,300 - 1,500 1,645
45 - A pair of 12½-inch (31,8 cm) diameter table globes by Johann Gabriel DOPPELMAYR, Nuremberg, 1728. The terrestrial signed 'GLOBUS TERRESTRIS in quo locorum insigniorum situs terraque facies, secundum praecipuas celeberrimorum nostri aevi Astronomorum et Geographorum observations opera IOH. GABR. DOPPELMAIERI mathem. Prof. Publ. Norib. Exhibentur, concinnatus à Ioh. Georg. Puschnero Chalcographo Norib. A.C. 1728', a second cartouche in the southern Pacific surrounded by portraits of various explorers, and beginning with 'Mart: Bohemus Norib. Eques (pasted on), and then Americus Vesputi, Franc. Draco, v. Schouten, Georg Spilbergius, R.P. Tachard S. Les., Wilh. Dampier (pasted on), Mon: dela Salle, Tomas Candisch, Olivirius a Nord, Ferdin. Magellanicus and Christ. Columbus'. The celestial globe signed 'GLOBUS COELESTIS NOVUS Stellarum fixarum Loca secundam celeberrimi Astronomi Dantiscani IOHANNIS HEVELII Catalogum ad anum Chr. 1730. compl. sistens, opera IOH. GABR. DOPPELMAIERI, M.P.P. exhibitus à Iohanne Georgio Puschnero Chalcographo Noribergensi A.C. 1728'. Both spheres held in the engraved brass meridian ring by two brass axis pins, with engraved brass hour ring, pointer lacking, the octagonal horizon with hand-coloured engraved applied paper ring with decorative corners supported on four baluster-turned mahogany columns united by oak cross-stretchers beneath a circular platform with meridian support, and with four bun feet. 18½ in. (47 cm) high
30,000 - 40,000 35,250
46 - A 15-inch (38,1 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE dressé par E. DUBAIL. E. BERTAUX, Editeur, 25, Rue Serpente, Paris. Gravé par P.Méa Imp. Monrocq, Paris', ca. 1910, with stamped brass meridian ring and horizon ring, raised on a turned brass and ebonised wood column and square plinth base. 30½ in. (77,5 cm) high
300 - 400 176
47 - A pair of 13-inch (33 cm) diameter globes by J. FELKL & SOHN, Rostok bei Prag, ca. 1880. The terrestrial signed 'ERDKUGEL (GLOBUS) Druck und Verlag von J. FELKL & SOHN Lehrmittel-Fabrik in ROSTOK bei PRAG', the celestial‚ HIMMELSGLOBUS Entworfen und herausgegeben von J. FELKL & SOHN Roztok - Prag'. Both spheres with stamped brass meridian, hour ring with pointer and adjustable and graduated quadrant of altitude, raised on three ebonised quadrant supports to central baluster-turned column and three hipped in swept legs, a brass-cased glazed compass held between on three brass supports. 28¾ in. (73 cm) high
8,000 - 10,000 -----
48 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter moon globe signed 'GLOBE DE LA LUNE Dressé sous la direction de CAMILLE FLAMMARION Par C. M. GAUDIBERT E. BERTAUX Editeur à Paris. Echelle 1 : 23,000.000', raised on a turned ebonised column and plinth base. 11¾ in. (29,9 cm) high
2,200 - 2,500 6,462
49 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter Mars globe signed 'Globe Géographique de la Planète MARS d'après CAMILLE FLAMMARION par E. Antoniadi E. Bertaux, Editieur, Paris.' Raised on a turned ebonised column and plinth base. 11¾ in. (29,9 cm) high
2,200 - 2,500 5,640
51 - An 8-inch (20,3 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'ERDGLOBUS gezeichnet von H. KIEPERT BERLIN Geogr. Verl. D. Reimer, (Ernst Vohsen)' raised without meridian ring on a short wire arm to an ebonised baluster-turned column and circular plinth base. 15 in. (38,1 cm) high
400 - 600 646
52 - A 19-inch (48,2 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'JORDGLOBE av H. KIEPERT svensk uplaga av ARVID KEMPE. Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm 1909. D. Reimers kartograf. Tryckeri, Berlin.', with stamped brass meridian half-ring raised on a ebonised and baluster-turned column and plinth base. 32 in. (81,3 cm) high
1,200 - 1,500 1,175
54 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, ca. 1845, signed 'DIE ERDE nach den neuesten Endeckungen NÜRNBERG Verlag von J. G. Klinger's Kunsthandlung. Gez. u. gest. v. J.A. Bühler' with iron axis pins, in a green leatherette-covered drum-shaped card box, the lid applied with a hand-coloured engraved picture of a family gathered around a table and various instruments including two globes, a telescope, a map and a pair of compasses being used by the father, a set square and various books, entitled 'DIE ERDE the Earth La Terre'. 6¼ in. (15,9 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 -----
54 A - A 11-inch (27,9 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, ca. 1835, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE Dressé Par P. LAPIE Geog. Colonel au Corps royal d'Etat-major', with papered wooden meridian ring with brass edging and similarly constructed horizon ring, raised on a turned ebonised column and plinth base. 20¼ in. (52,8 cm) high, poor condition
300 - 500 376
55 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe 'Loring's TERRESTRIAL GLOBE containing all THE LATEST DISCOVERIES AND Geographical Improvements, also the Tracks of the most celebrated Circumnavigators. Compiled from Smith's new English Globe, with additions and improvements by Annin & Smith. BOSTON Josiah Loring 136 Washington St 1844.' With graduated brass meridian ring, held in the coloured papered horizon, on four baluster-turned mahogany legs united by cross-stretchers. 17½ in. (44,4 cm) high
600 - 800 1,175
56 - A pair of 6 inch (15,2 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'MALBY'S TERRESTRIAL GLOBE Compiled from the Latest & MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES. Including all the recent Geographical Discoveries, Manufactured for the Commissioners of Irish National Education. DUBLIN 1859', the celestial 'MALBY'S CELESTIAL GLOBE, MANUFACTURED FOR THE COMMISSIONERS of Irish National Education DUBLIN, 1859'. Both globes with unengraved meridian half-ring, baluster-turned mahogany column and circular plinth base. 10 in. (25,4 cm) high
2,500 - 3,500 3,290
57 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, ca. 1877, 'MALBY'S TERRESTRIAL GLOBE. Compiled from the Latest & MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES. Including all the recent Geographical Discoveries. EDWARD STANFORD, GEOGRAPHICAL PUBLISHER &c. 55, CHARING CROSS, LONDON.' With stamped brass meridian ring, stand missing.
1,200 - 1,500 1,175
60 - A 15-inch (38,1 cm) diameter terrestrial globe 'Schotte's UNIVERSAL-GLOBUS 15" - 40 ctm Durchmesser, Maßstab 1 : 32 500 000 Nach den neuesten u. besten Quellen bearbeitet. BERLIN W 35. Verlag Ernst Schotte & Co. Druck Berl. Lithogr. Institut.' With stamped brass meridian half-ring, raised on a baluster-turned ebonised column and three cabriole legs, an out swinging compass fixed beneath the column. 30 in. (76,2 cm) high
1,200 - 1,500 1,527
62 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter table globes, the terrestrial 'WYLD'S Globe of the Earth WITH THE LATEST DISCOVERIES. London. Published by JAMES WYLD Charing Cross East. 1838.', the celestial 'WYLD'S GLOBE OF THE Heavens CONTAINING THE FIXED STARS TO THE SIXTH MAGNITUDE INCLUSIVE: Calculated to the Year 1844 Collated from F. Baily's edition of Flamstead: Piazzi, La Caille, Hevelius, Mayer, Bradley &c. London, Pub.d by James Wyld, Charing Cross East, 1844'
both spheres with engraved brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with engraved paper on four baluster-turned legs united by cross stretchers. 18 in. (45,7 cm) high
7,000 - 9,000 -----
63 - A pair of 15 inch (38,1 cm) diameter library globes, the terrestrial 'CARY'S NEW TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, Drawn from the most recent GEOGRAPHICAL WORKS, showing the whole of the New Discoveries with the TRACKS of the PRINCIPAL NAVIGATORS and every improvement in Geography to the present Time. LONDON: London Published by G. & J. Cary, St. James's St. Jan.y 5th 1849.', the celestial CAR'S NEW CELESTIAL GLOBE, ON WHICH are carefully laid down the whole of the STARS AND NEBULAE contained in the Catalogues of Wollaston, Herschel, Bode, Piazzi, Zach &c. calculated to the Year 1820. Made & Sold by J. & W. Cary. No. 181 Strand London 1818.' Both spheres with brass meridian ring and wooden horizon ring supported by a mahogany stand. 40 in. (101,6 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 21,150
66 - A pair of 42½ inch (110 cm) diameter library globes, each made up of two sets of twelve original proof gores [by Vincenzo CORONELLI] and two (later) polar calottes, with (later) horizon papers, the celestial being the convex gores, laid on modern plaster spheres, with modern mountings, signed on the meridian G & T (Greaves & Thomas), London. Both spheres in Dutch-style stand with octagonal oak horizon ring. 69 in. (175 cm) high
100,000 - 150,000 113,750
SOTHEBY'S, Olympia London - 20 September 2001
72 - A 3-inch terrestrial pocket globe, English, ca. 1791, the cartouche reading 'CARY's pocket Globe agreeable to the latest DISCOVERIES LONDON Pubd by J & W Cary Strand April 1791', contained within a fishskin case with one half of the interior applied with gores depicting 'The WORLD as known in CAESAR's time agreeable to D'Anville', the other half of the interior showing 'A TABLE OF Latitudes & Longitudes of Places not given on this GLOBE'.
2,200 - 3,200 -----
73 - A 2¾-inch pocket globe, English, signed 'LANE's Pocket GLOBE London 1807', contained within a black fishskin case with green coloured celestial map applied to the interior.
2,000 - 3,000 2,115
76 - A 3-inch terrestrial globe, American, ca. 1820. 'A Three inch Terrestrial GLOBE By Wilson & Co. Alby.', mounted between bobbin-turned fruitwood vertical supports fitted onto a horizontal similar support which would have originally formed part of the stand cross stretcher now missing. 5 in. (12,7 cm) high
1,200 - 1,800 4,347
77 - A Betts collapsible portable terrestrial globe, English, mid 19th century. 'By the Queens Royal Letters Patent Betts's New Portable Terrestrial Globe compiled from latest and best authorities London, John Betts, 115 Strand', printed on waxed cloth with umbrella type frame, in original wooden box. 28½ in. (72,5 cm) length
400 - 600 411
80 - A 6-inch terrestrial educational jig-saw globe, American, first quarter 20th century. 'Terrestrial Globe 6 Dia Geographic Educator, New York USA' made up of 12 lithographed gores laid onto a die cast metal sphere, with a map of the world, the sphere split into five sections, each section with puzzles of different continent with all the countries named in relief, on cast iron tripod stand with metal rod and securing brass pin. 10 in. (25,5cm) high
500 - 800 646
81 - A 12-inch terrestrial globe by Dr. Krause, German, ca. 1920, with half meridian ring, mounted on turned ebonised stand. 27 in. (68,5 cm) high
350 - 450 611
82 - A 21-inch celestial globe, English, published 1799. 'Cary's New and Improved Celestial Globe of which is carefully laid down the whole of the STARS and the NEBULAE … Made and sold by J & W Cary … 1799', with brass meridian ring, the horizon ring supported on four turned wooden legs with cross stretchers. 27¾ in. (70 cm) high
2,500 - 5,000 22,325
83 - An heliocentric (Copernican) armillary sphere by Luigi Cervellati, Bologna, late 18th century, signed on one of the Arctic polar rings 'Luigi Cervellati Forma', the 12-inch diameter paper on board sphere consisting of seven concentric rings including the Zodiac band, Tropics, Equator, equinoctial ring and polar rings. Meridian ring with hour ring. In the centre a wooden sphere representing the sun and six smaller spheres on metal rings for revolving around the sun. Octagonal walnut stand with horizon ring supported by four tapered walnut legs with turned walnut stretchers. 19¼ in. (49,
5 cm) high
10,000 - 15,000 9,400
84 - A 18-inch celestial globe by G & L. VALK, Dutch, dated 1715, signed 'URANOGRAPHIA … Operà et Studio GERHARDI ET LEONHARDI VALK, Amstelædamnensium 1715. cum Privilegio.' And dedicated to Johann TRIP in a second cartouche. 'In very good restored condition'.
50,000 - 55,000 -----
85 - A pair of 8-inch terrestrial and celestial globes by Matthäus SEUTTER, German, c. 1710. 'Both globes in fine, restored condition'.
40,000 - 45,000 -----
86 - A W. JONES orrery, English, ca. 1812, signed 'A new portable orrery invented and made by W. Jones and sold by him in Holborn, London'. The 19,5 cm circular mahogany base overlaid with printed paper (calendar, equinoxes and the four seasons), the orrery may be assembled as a tellurian or as a planetarium. Planetarium: with six brass planetary arms projecting ivory, wooden and brass spheres representing various planets, each brass arm with collar fixing onto central brass axis projecting a brass sphere representing the sun. Tellurian: the brass geared mechanism with ivory moon and earth spheres and brass sphere representing the sun contained within a fitted mahogany case with small brass lamp holder. Width of case 22 cm, 8½ in.
10,000 - 15,000 9,165
87 - A manually adjusted tellurium signed 'Richer à Paris', the globe signed 'C. F. DELAMARCHE … 1812', French, 2nd quarter of the 19th century or earlier.
8,000 - 10,000 -----
CHRISTIE'S South Kensington, 28 November 2001
5 - A 1 1/3-inch (4,5 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe, early 19th Century, English text. The globe, signed 'MCB', maybe made by Carl Bauer, Nuremberg, contained in the original paper-covered card-box, the lid applied with an hand-coloured engraved label with the title in a circular cartouche 'The WORLD with ist [sic] animals', flanked by a bear, an elephant, a seated lion, a horse and two camels, the inside base of the box glued with the remaining two folds of an engraved paper strip. The underside of the box inscribed in ink 'Miss Julia Locking Given to her by Mr. Blaine […] 1838'.
[This globe, is signed with the initials MCB and not MPS - therefore 'M' perhaps standing for 'Mechanicus' and 'CB' and 'PS' for the author - CB for Carl Bauer, PS for another globe maker from Nuremberg (Peter Salziger (??), died 1853)]
2,000 - 3,000 2,115
6 - A 2¾-inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, early 19th Century, signed in a circular cartouche 'Neuste Darstellung der ERDE von P. B.' [Peter BAUER, Nuremberg] under the cartouche 'Kaijser sc. Nürb.', with two iron axis pins, contained in a (later) turned mahogany case with domed lid with flat knob
2,000 - 3,000 -----
7 - A 3½-inch (8,9 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, ca. 1850, signed 'DELAMARCHE Paris Rue Serpente' with steel axis pins in a turned mahogany box with domed lid with flat knob. 4½ in. (11,4 cm) high [= No. 5 from auction of 6.6.2001]
1,000 - 1,200 940
8 - A 2¾-inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe with overlaid cartouche 'DOLLOND LONDON 1809' with two iron axis pins in a (later) turned mahogany case with domed lid and flat knob
2,500 - 3,500 4,935
9 - A 4½-inch (11,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, mid 19th Century, French, originally from a tellurian or orrery, made from two metal hemispheres, signed 'Dressé PAR H. DUFOUR 18[...] Paris Rue Hautefeuille, 13, CH. DIEN'
600 - 800 705
10 - A 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter pocket globe, the terrestrial globe, English, c. 1756, signed 'A New GLOBE of the Earth by James Ferguson' under the cartouche 'J.Mynde Sc.', contained in the original spherical fishskin case, interior laid with [convex] celestial gores
4,000 - 5,000 8,812
12 - A 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, c. 1760, signed 'A New GLOBE of the Earth made & Sold by Will.m King, Dublin', with holes for axis pins at the poles, contained in the original spherical fishskin-covered wooden case, the interior laid with [konvex] celestial gores
5,000 - 6,000 9,400
13 - A 2½-inch (6,3 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'DIE ERDE nach den neuest. Entdeck. NÜRNBERG Verl.v.I.G.Klinger Kunsthandlung', contained in the original drum-shaped leatherette-covered card box, the lid applied with a hand-coloured engraved picture of three children with a pocket globe, a table globe and a hanging picture of the world in western and eastern hemispheres on the wall behind, with the legend beneath the picture 'DIE ERDE. THE EARTH.' 2¾ in. (7 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 2,585
14 - A 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, signed 'LANE's Pocket GLOBE. LONDON 1818', with two iron axis pins, contained in the original spherical fishskin-covered wooden case, the interior laid with [convex] celestial gores
2,500 - 3,500 5,287
15 - A 2-inch (5,1 cm) diameter celestial globe [c.1840], signed 'MALBY'S Celestial Globe Shewing the principal Stars of each Constellat.n Houghton St. London', with unengraved brass meridian half-circle, raised on an turned ivory column and plinth base, the column with an applied label for 'A NEW CELESTIAL GLOBE London'. 4 in. (10,1 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 3,525
16 - A 2¾-inch (7 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe [ca. 1860], signed 'OUTLINE OF THE EARTH, BY J. MANNING.' with an unengraved brass meridian half-circle, raised on a turned fruitwood column and plinth base. 5 in. (10,7 cm) high [= No- 7 from auction of 6.6.2001]
800 - 1,200 -----
17 - A 1¾-inch (4,4 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, German, signed 'M P.S.', with an unvarnished baluster-turned fruitwood egg-cup stand, the underside with [?] owner's inscription ink, dated 1841. 3¼ in. (8,3 cm) high
1,500 - 2,000 -----
18 - A 1 5/8-inch (4 cm) diameter miniature terrestrial globe, German, signed 'M P.S.', brass meridian ring, brass horizon ring, supporting by four brass legs terminating in bun feet, united by brass stretchers supporting a circular metal plate. 2 3/8 in. (6 cm) high [= No. 8 from auction of 6.6.2001]
1,800 - 2,000 1,762
21 - A 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, ca. 1835, signed 'NEWTON'S New & Improved TERRESTRIAL GLOBE Published by Newton, Son & Berry 66 Chancery Lane LONDON' with two iron axis pins in a turned mahogany case, domed lid lacking
400 - 600 493
22 - A 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'RAND MCNALLY & CO'S NEW 3 INCH TERRESTRIAL GLOBE', 'Copyright 1891', with an unengraved painted iron meridian half-circle, raised on a turned fruitwood plinth base. 5 7/8 in. (14.9 cm) high
800 - 1,200 -----
23 - A 2¾-inch (7 cm) diameter terrestrial pocket globe, ca. 1745, signed 'A New & Correct GLOBE of the Earth By J. Senex F.R.S.', contained within the original spherical fishskin-covered wooden case, the interior lined with hand-coloured engraved celestial gores
3,000 - 4,000 3,525
26 - An anonymous "Easter-Egg" globe, of ovoid form, made up of two wooden halves laid with two sets of ten chromolithographed gores and one small southern polar calotte printed with 'Made in Germany', English text, 19th Century - 5½ in. (14 cm) long
600 - 800 2115
30 - A 8-inch (20,3 cm) diameter terrestrial time-piece globe, ca. 1890, signed 'GLOBE UNIVERSEL ASTRONOMIQUE à longitudes variables et altitudes independentes dressé et édité pour l'enseignement primaire PAR A. JOURDAN Membre des Sociétés Astronomique de France de Géographie de l'association française pour l'avancement des Sciences etc. Bréveté S.G.D.G. Gravé chez L. Sonnet Imp. Dufrenoy'. - 14 in. (35.5 cm) high
600 - 800 1,057
33 - A pair of approx. 7½-inch (19 cm) diameter inflatable table globes, each sphere made from untanned calf skin with an inner bladder of (later) rubber, inflatable via a metal valve at the North Pole, the terrestrial 'BREVET D'INVENTION GLOBE TERRESTRE dressé PAR AMBROISE TARDIEU d'après l'invention de A. WEINLING et CIE 1831 A STRASBOURG chez Marin et Schmidt', the celestial 'Brevet d'Invention. GLOBE CÉLESTE. Position des Etoiles fixes pour l'année 1840 dressé par SPIES d'après l'invention de WEINLING & CIE Lith. de Simon P. et F. A STRASBOURG chez Marin & Schmidt', with meridian ring, horizon ring, four horizon quadrant supports papered on one side. Both spheres raised on a baluster turned fruitwood column and circular plinth base - 20 in. (50,8 cm) high
4,500 - 5,500 -----
41 - A late 19th-Century School Tellurium, the 3-inch (7,6 cm) diameter terrestrial globe 'ERD-GLOBUS BERLIN Ludw. Jul. Heymann' with geared mechanism to the North Pole (incomplete) and mounted on a geared mechanism partially contained in a hexagonal brass drum, supported on a brass arm with simple scroll support to the papered horizon plate (lacking candle holder and reflector) with fruitwood handle and cast iron column and plinth base with six feet - 22 in,. (55,8 cm) long
600 - 800 587
51 - A brass Doppelmayr-pattern armillary sphere, signed 'Jenig Fecit 1792', the small brass earthball within ungraduated polar rings and tropic and equatorial rings engraved with graduation 0-360°, with two full colures each graduated in degrees in four quadrants on one side, the wide ecliptic band fixed and graduated in days of the Zodiac, within a meridian ring with graduations, hour ring with pointer, raised on four baluster-turned mahogany columns united by oak cross-stretchers beneath a circular oak platform with meridian support and raised on four bun feet - 12in. (30,5 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 4,700
54 - A Reproduction of 'Johann Schöner's Globe of 1523 Long Lost, 1888', published by Chiswick Press, also with a facsimile reproduction of Schöner's dedicatory letter to Reymer von Streytperck and translations of other relevant contemporaneous documents, 8°, cloth covered boards, marbled end papers, and engraved plate of Schöner as frontispiece, a slipcase in the inside back cover containing two large folded sheets, one a reproduction of the gores of the Schöner globe, the other with a projection of the Hunt Lenox globe of circa 1506, western hemispherical projections of Schöner's 1515 and 1520 globes, and another set of facsimile gores
500 - 700 587
62 - A 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'A PARIS Chez le ssr Delamarche, Ingn.r Geog. Rue de Foin, après celle de la Harpe, au Collége de Mtre. Gervais. Avec Privilege du Roi 1786' and 'Dédié et présenté A MONSEIGNEUR BERTIN Ministre et Sécretaire d'Etat Corrigé et augmenté des découvertes du Capitaine Cook et de son Voyage depuis le 1er. Sept. 1776 jusqu'au 14 Fev. 1779 époque de sa mort à l'Isle Owhyhee' with papered meridian ring and wooden horizon in a French-style stand - 21¼ in. (54cm) high
5,000 - 8,000 9,987
63 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr, Nuremberg, 1728, signed 'GLOBUS COELESTIS NOVUS Stellarum fixarum Loca secundam celeberrimi Astronomi Datiscani IOHANNIS HEVELII Catalogum and anum Chr. 1730. cmpl. sistens, opera IOH. GABR. DOPPELMAIERI, M.P.P. exhibitus à Iohanne Georgio Puschnero Chalcographo Noribergensi A.C. 1728' in a modern oak and mahogany Dutch-style stand with unpapered horizon - 18 in. (45.7 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 -----
65 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'A NEW CELESTIAL GLOBE on which is laid down all the Stars & Nebulæ contained in the Catalogue of the most celebrated Astronomers, the whole adapted to the Year 1820. By THOMAS HARRIS and SON Opticians and Globe makers, TO HIS MAJESTY AND [overlaid cartouche) Sold by Richd . Spear, College Green, DUBLIN'
4,000 - 5,000 -----
66 - A 10-inch (25,4 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'JOSLIN'S TEN INCH TERRESTRIAL GLOBE: Manufactured by GILMAN JOSLIN, BOSTON', with unengraved brass meridian ring and horizon ring, raised on four brass quadrant supports to an ebonised baluster-turned column and circular plinth base - 19½ in. (49.5 cm) high
1,200 - 1,500 1,997
67 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'Joslin's TERRESTRIAL GLOBE containing all THE LATEST DISCOVERIES AND Geographical Improvements also the Tracks of the most celebrated Circumnavigators. Compiled from Smith's new English Globe, with additions and improvements by Annin & Smith. Revised by G.W. Boynton. Manufactured by Gilmore Joslin, Boston', with stamped brass meridian, mahogany horizon with engraved paper ring, raised on four baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 18¼ in. (46.3 cm) high
5,000 - 6,000 5,875
68 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'JOSLIN'S Six Inch Celestial Globe. From the best Authorities. GILMAN JOSLIN. Boston, 1840.' With an unengraved brass meridian half-ring, raised on a baluster-turned mahogany column and circular plinth base - 10¼ in. (26 cm) high
2,000 - 2,500 2,115
69 - A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'GLOBE TERRESTRE dessiné par H. KIEPERT. BERLIN D. REIMER Libraire - éditeur 1865. Gravé p. J. SULZER. Imprimé p. F. Barth', with a stamped brass meridian half-ring, raised on a gilt-painted cast-metal stand, atop a circular plinth base - 23½ in. (59.6 cm) high
1,600 - 1,800 1,762
70 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'KIRKWOOD'S NEW CELESTIAL GLOBE', with stamped brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with reproduction paper ring, raised on four baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 17¾ in. (45.1 cm) high
3,000 - 4,000 2,937
71 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, ca. 1834, signed 'KIRKWOOD'S NEW TERRESTRIAL GLOBE with the very latest DISCOVERIES. Published by Kirkwood & Son, 11 So: St. Andrew St. Edmr.' and J.A.S W. LYON & Co., Edinburgh Bazaar 25 Princes Street, Venders by Special Appointment.' With stamped brass meridian ring, in a reproduction stand, with ebonised horizon, baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 9¾ in. (24.8 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 -----
72 - A pair of 12-inch (30.5 cm) diameter globes with Dutch text, 'DE AARDE volgens de nieuwste ontdekkingen Uitgave van C. Abel - Klinger te NEURENBERG.', the celestial with no maker's cartouche. Both spheres with stamped brass meridian ring, octagonal horizon ring, raised on three curved quadrant supports to a baluster-turned piller and concave quatrefoil base on four bun feet - 25½ in. (64.7 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 -----
73 - A 6-inch (15,2 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'DIE ERDE nach den neuesten Endeckungen NÜRNBERG Verlag von J. G. Klinger's Kunsthandlung. Gez. u. gest. v. J. A. Bühler.' With iron axis pins, in a green leatherette-covered drum-shaped card box, the lid applied with a hand-coloured engraved picture of a family gathered around a table with various instruments, entitled 'DIE ERDE The Earth La Terre'. 6¼ inch (15,9 cm) high [= No. 54 from auction of 6.6.2001]
3,500 - 4,500 3,525
74 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'LORING'S CELESTIAL GLOBE Containing all the known Stars Nebulae &c. Compiled from the Works of WOLLASTON, FLAMSTEED, DE LA CAILLE, HEVELIUS, MAYER, BRADLEY, HERSCHEL, MASKELYNE The Transactions of the ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY of LONDON &c. &c. From Smith's New English Globe Boston, Josiah Loring, 136, Washington St. 1833 Annin & Smith sc.' With stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon, raised on four baluster-turned mahogany legs united by cross-stretchers - 18½ in. (47 cm) high
4,000 - 6,000 -----
75 - A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'MALBY'S TERRESTRIAL GLOBE Compiled from the latest AND MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES, INCLUDING ALL THE RECENT Geographical Discoveries Manufactured and Published under the superintendence of the SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE BY MALBY & SONS GLOBE & MAPSELLERS TO THE ADMIRALTY. Published at the Globe Manufactory 37 Parker Street, Little Queen Street, Holborn, LONDON, 1863.', with stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon supported on three baluster-turned and fluted legs, united by turned cross-stretchers - 19in. (48.2 cm) high
800 - 1,200 881
76 - A 5-inch (12,7 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'MALBY'S CELESTIAL GLOBE Published March 1st. 1845.', with an unengraved brass meridian half-ring raised on a baluster-turned mahogany column and circular plinth base - 9¼ in. (23.5 cm) high
1,200 - 1,500 1,880
78 - A 14-inch (45,7 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'A NEW CELESTIAL GLOBE whereon the Stars are laid down from the accurate observations of the best Astronomers by J. & W. Newton 1818', with stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon (the engraved paper ring signed 'Published 1 March 1829 by W [...] S & BERRY, 66 Chancery Lane LONDON'), raised on three baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 23½ in. (59,7 cm) high
3,500 - 4,500 -----
79 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial NEWTON'S New and Improved TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, on which the MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES, are laid down from the Accurate Observations of Cap.n Cook, Phipps, Vancouver, Perousé & other modern Navigators. I. & W. NEWTON, N°. 66 Chancery Lane, LONDON. 1816.', the celestial 'NEWTON'S NEW and IMPROVED Celestial Globe, whereon the Stars are laid down from the most accurate observations of the best Modern Astronomers, to the beginning of the Year 1810.'. Both spheres with brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with engraved paper ring, signed 'Published 1st July 1810 by I & W. Newton, Chancery Lane, LONDON.', raised on four baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 19½ in. (49.5 cm) high
15,000 - 20,000 -----
80 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'THE FRANKLIN TERRESTRIAL GLOBE 12 INCHES IN DIAMETER CONTAINING ALL THE Geographical Divisions & POLITICAL BOUNDARIES to the present date Carefully Compiled from the best Authorities NIMS & KNIGHT. TROY N.Y. - Rae Smith Engraver N.Y.', without meridian ring, raised on a lacquered-brass column and circular plinth base
1,200 - 1,500 -----
81 - A pair of 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'THE NEW TWELVE INCH BRTITISH Terrestrial Globe REPRESENTING THE ACCURATE POSITIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL KNOWN PLACES OF THE EARTH. FROM THE DISCOVERIES OF CAPTAIN COOK AND SUBSEQUENT CIRCUMNAVIGATORS TO THE PRESENT PERIOD Manufactured by S. S. Edkins Son in Law & Successor to the late T. M. Bardin Salisbury Square, London', the celestial 'THE NEW TWELVE INCH British Celestial Globe Containing the exact positions of more than 3800 FIXD STARS, Nebulæ, Planetary Nebulæ &c. according to the Latest Discoveries and Observations of Astronomers and corrected to the present period', a second cartouche reading 'MADE by S. S. Edkins son in Law to the late T. M. BARDIN Salisbury Sq.e London', both spheres with stamped brass meridian ring, the mahogany horizon with hand-coloured paper ring raised on four baluster-turned ebonised legs united by cross-stretchers - 18¼ in. (46,3 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 -----
83 - A 13-inch (33 cm) terrestrial globe, signed 'Räths Politischer Erdglobus bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. A. Krause Verlag Paul Räth G.m.b.H. Lehrmittel-Werkstätten, Leipzig Druck: Carl Starke, Leipzig 027' with stamped brass meridian half-ring, raised on the back of a stooped two-tone bronze figure of Hercules standing on a stylised rocky plinth base - 34 in. (86,5 cm) high
1,500 - 1,800 -----
A 13-inch (33 cm) diameter terrestrial globe, signed 'Smith's TERRESTRIAL GLOBE containing the whole of THE LATEST DISCOVERIES IN AUSTRALIA AFRICA AND THE ARCTIC REGIONS also the direction of the Ocean Currents LONDON SMITH & SON, 63 CHARING CROSS.', with a stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with engraved paper ring, raised on four baluster-turned legs united by cross-stretchers - 18½ in. (47 cm) high
2,500 - 3,000 2,820
85 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe, signed 'SMITH'S CELESTIAL GLOBE GEORGE PHILIP & SON LTD The London Geographical Institute 32 Fleet Street, London, E.C.' with stamped brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with engraved paper ring, raised on four baluster-turned mahogany legs united by cross-stretchers - 19in. (48.3 cm) high
3,500 - 4,500 -----
86 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter relief globe, signed 'MÉDAILLE 2é CLASSE, EXPOSITION DE PARIS, 1855, Méd.le de 1re Classe, Expon de Dijon 1858. -Méd.le d'Or Acadmie de Dijon BREVET D'INVENTION S.C.D.C. GLOBE EN RELIEF PAR THURY & BELNET GÉOGRAPHES, AUTEURS, ÉDITEURS, DIJON. Lith. Richard Dijon', without meridian ring, raised on a tapering cast-bronze support, to an ebonised and turned column and stepped circular plinth base - 21 in. (53.3 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 2,702
87 - A 12-inch (30,5 cm) diameter celestial globe by GERARD VALK, signed 'Uranographia Coelum omne hic Complectens, Illa pro ut aucta et ad annum 1700 Completum MAGNO ab HEVELIO correcta est: ita, eijus ex Prototypis, sua noviter haec Ectypa veris Astronomiae culturibus exhibet et consecrat GERARD VALK Amsteloedamensis. Cum Privilegio.', with stamped brass meridian ring, oak horizon with hand-coloured paper ring, on an oak and mahogany Duth-style stand, a label on the underside for the former Robert Haardt collection - 20in. (50,7 cm) high
20,000 - 30,000 -----
88 - A pair of mid 19th-Century 9-inch (22,8 cm) diameter globes, the terrestrial signed 'A TERRESTRIAL GLOBE Compiled from the latest & MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES Including all the recent Geographical Discoveries PUBD BY J.WYLD. CHARING CROSS EAST LONDON (cartouche overlaid), the celestial 'A CELESTIAL GLOBE, Collated from the works of Piazzi, Bradley, Hevelius, Mayer, la Caille & Johnson Reduced in the Year Pub by J. WYLD CHARING CROSS EAST, LONDON (cartouche overlaid). Below: 'J. Addison Sc. 151 Strand', both spheres with an unengraved meridian ring raised on a baluster-turned mahogany column and plinth base - 14½ in. (26,8 cm) high
7,000 - 9,000 -----
89 - A 18-inch (45,8 cm) diameter celestial library globe, signed 'To the Rev. NEVIL MASKELYNE D.D.F.R.S. Astronomer Royal This New British Celestial Globe Containing the Positions of nearly 6000 Stars, Clusters, Nebulae, Planetary Nebulae &c. Correctly laid down to the present period from the latest observation and discoveries by Dr. Maskelyne, Dr. Herschel, The Revd. Wollaston &c &c. Respectfully Dedicated by his most obedient H. ble Servents W & T. M. Bardin' and 'Manufactured & Sold Whole sale & Retail by W. & T. M. Bardin, 16 Salisbury Square Fleet Street London', with brass meridian ring, mahogany horizon with engraved paper ring, raised on four curved quadrant supports to a baluster-turned column with three fluted inswept feet on brass castors, held between them a glazed compass case with blue-steel needle and reproduced compass card - 46 in. (116.8 cm) high
12,000 - 15,000 14,100
92 - A 25-inch (63,5 cm) diameter terrestrial library globe, with text in Armenian, in Cyrillic script (the globe is a copy of Joseph JÜTTNER's terrestrial globe of 63 cm diameter, first edition 1839, second edition 1846), with a stamped brass meridian ring, ebonised wood horizon with chromolithographed paper ring, raised on six curved quadrants to the turned meridian support, with three inswept legs - 47 in. (119,4 cm) high
20,000 - 25,000 -----
93 - A 19-inch (48,2 cm) diameter terrestrial library globe, signed 'SVENSKA BOKHANDELS CENTRALENS Globo För Handel och Skola bearbetad av Prof. Dr. Ernst Friedrich Stockholm Import' with a stamped brass meridian half-ring, raised on an Art Deco-style tripod stand on a triangular plinth base - 41 in. (104,2 cm) high
2,000 - 3,000 -----